Monday, September 30, 2019
Using Katzenbach and SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s article as a guide, what might you do if you wanted to encourage team performance? What risks would you face in doing this, and what would you have to be careful of? What I would do to encourage team performance is to set goals for them, in the Katzenbach and smithÃ¢â¬â¢s article, they have mentioned the 4 main elements that make team functional, common commitment and purpose, Performance goals, Complementary skills and Mutual accountability. Team functional, common commitment and purpose, this is like given the team a goal for them, having a goal can let the team work more effectively as they can achieve something, the more meaningful the goal is, the more likely the team will live up to the performance potential. For a team, it is very important to have almost everyone doing what they are best at, everyone has what they are good at and is important to have them using their own skills, in this way the job will be done more efficiently. Also the team needs to meet the deadlines, also to attend all the meetings, this is because the team will need to be update to all the new information so the team will understand what they are doing and having group discussion, also to know if the competitors has any new moves on their business. If the team can spend a lot of time together, in this way the team will get to know each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s working method or getting to know each other, in this way the relationship will be better which will make a much better team. A specific goal for any individuals can let them stay focus on one subject, this is so all the control for this person can focus on one thing which can give a much better result. Also the reward they can get from working to its performance potential, a reward can be very differently; it can be the manger will buy the team a dinner or give bonus, or even a promotion, this can improve the behaviors of the team, also will encourage them to work better or faster for the reward they can get. But the methods above doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always work, having goal doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the team can achieve it, in the long term if they cannot achieve, is common sense that people will start to give up on the task, I think the task needs to be achievable and the team must know before they start how badly things can be, if they knew this, the chances of the problem will is less. People in the team will always dislike someone in the group, this can always happens and the disadvantage of this is the information between them might not be sharedÃ which can cause problems. The rewards can also be a bad thing for the team, most people would like to have a promotion, but having promotion mean cause problems in the team, teammates can be fighting for the promotion and this can break the relationship between them.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
No matter what children are doing, they are always surrounded by advertisements. Whether it is watching television, Reading a book/magazine, or browsing the internet; advertisements are everywhere. Eric Schlosser has a good point when he argues in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Kid KustomersÃ¢â¬ that more advertisements are being directed towards children each day. It is not only directed toward children, but influencing children to beg their parents for products they do not need or even want. As in, the stuff they see on television are not essentials for life. Children want them simply because they Ã¢â¬Å"look cool. Schlosser explains how in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s parents felt bad for leaving their children at home all day without spending any quality time with them, so they started buying them good toys, clothes, or whatever else they wanted to make up for this (519). Prior to this, there were only a handful of companies that targeted children, and now almost every company is. For example, Schloss er describes a study published in 1991 from the Journal of the American Medical Association stating, Ã¢â¬Å"nearly all of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s six-year-olds could identify Joe Camel, who was just as familiar to them as Mickey MouseÃ¢â¬ (520).Schlosser later explains one-third of the illegal cigarettes sold to minors were Camel. However, more recently, there have been surveys conducted throughout the malls of America asking children to describe every detail they could about their favorite advertisements. One marketer explained, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not just getting the kids to whine, itÃ¢â¬â¢s giving them a specific reason to ask for the productÃ¢â¬ (520). The marketer simply means, the advertisers goal is to make children to want the product. The product has to be loud, colorful, and interesting or they need to be able to do something with it to make them want it.For example, the study concluded the talking Chihuahua in the Taco Bell ads were the most popular out of the fast food ads, but the most popular out of all the ads was the ad for Budweiser. To add to the idea of marketers surveying children in the study in the previous paragraph, Schlosser uses the book Kids as Costumers by James U. McNeal as a source. McNeal describes the different ways of nagging children will do towards their parents in order to get what they want or to get their way.In order for children to do so, advertisers found a way to learn the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interest: by studying their lives, then putting the information into the advertisements (521-522). For instance, imagine a marketer discovered children who are girls enjoy watching television shows about fairies and/or play computer games that involve a cute animal mascot; the marketer will then somehow to put those subjects in an advertisement, young girls would want that product. After mentioning the different studies, Schlosser then explains how improving advertisements are more directed towards children.He ends the essay on a s trong not by explaining how the Walt Disney Company signed a contract with McDonalds. Schlosser states, Ã¢â¬Å"Now you can buy a Happy Meal at the Happiest Place on EarthÃ¢â¬ (526). By McDonalds and Disney combining, children are more likely to beg to their parents to go to Disney World. Eric Schlosser mentions some interesting points in the essay. He is correct when he states that advertisements are harshly aimed toward children. Reviewing back at the advertisements I remember seeing as a kid, when I about 10 years old, I remember looking at the advertisements and seeing amny items that caught my attention and interests.These interests were the following: drinks, toys, movies, new TV shows, and clothes. It makes me reflect on my behavior towards my parents when seeing such ads. While I currently have a younger sister, who watches cartoons, I have noticed the advertisements have declined from their original purposes. One of the declines that advertisements are played on the incor rect TV channels. For example, commercials for a rated PG-13 (or a higher rating movie) should not be played on a TV channel that little children watch.Today a great number of little kids have cellphones, laptops, expensive clothes, and so many more things children should not have, simply because they are not old enough. Cell phones are mainly used for when a person is not around anybody else; young children are always around an adult and if something were to go wrong, the adult would know who to call. According to James U. McNeal, there are seven types of Ã¢â¬Å"nagsÃ¢â¬ : the pleading nag, persistent nag, forceful nag, demonstrative nag, sugarcoated nag, threatening nags, and pity nags. Then he describes his research discovered, Ã¢â¬Å"kids tend to stick to one or two of each that prove most effective . . for their own parentsÃ¢â¬ (521). For example, a child could start crying in the middle of the store repeatedly saying Ã¢â¬Å"please mom/dadÃ¢â¬ until the parent either gi ves in. The same goes for a child whom could tell their parents they are going to run away if they do not give them a certain product, but either way, it is up to the parent on whether or not they will give in to the nags. Some children perform well at figuring out which nag works best. Everybody knows children (particularly small children) love all kinds of animals. However, do we know exactly how much? A study done by Dan S.Acuff, the author of the book What Kids Buy and Why, suggests that about 80% of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams are about animals until they are the age of six (522). Also it suggests the reason why so many characters in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s TV shows and movies have animals as their mascots. Having so, helped the advertisement groups realize they needed new mascots. There is a Character Lab that helps companies make these new mascots, the Youth Market System Consulting that uses, Ã¢â¬Å"technique purports to create imaginary characters who perfectly fit the targeted age groupÃ¢â¬â¢s level of cognitive and neurological developmentÃ¢â¬ (522).However, one flaw in SchlosserÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is he does not reflect on the positive advertisements children are watching every day. He mainly mentions how children want their parents to buy them fast food and cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. Though many advertisements are attempting to get children to buy healthy products. For example, I have seen from the TV my younger sister watches, some commercials are about getting out of the house and playing outside with friends. With this commercial, children will get excited to get out of the house and play with outdoor toys, getting exercise, and interacting with other children.Another commercial on the Disney Channel there was an advisement with Michelle Obama telling children to eat healthier and she while gave diet tips. Not only does this advertisement have a popular person in it, but that popular person is the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Having her in the ad influences the children to have excitement because they are doing something the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s wife wants. In addition, this advertisement has children asking their parents for healthier food choices around the house and they will rely the diet tips to their parents.In addition, there are many other commercials on Disney Channel about Ã¢â¬Å"going greenÃ¢â¬ and recycling. On the other hand, there are Ã¢â¬Å"Above the InfluenceÃ¢â¬ commercials that express to children that drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and doing drugs are a bad habit, but they always have the option to say Ã¢â¬Å"no. Ã¢â¬ Without advertisements like these, children would not be as well educated as they are about it now. These types of advertisements make children ask questions to parents, teachers, and older siblings about what is considered right and wrong and the different types of foods that should be in the house.This also helps children focus on more than the TV or computer. In all, sever al points can be made about whether or not advertisements positively or negatively affect kids, or if they are making people buy more products. I believe most advertisements do have a negative effect on children and there should be laws in place to keep this from getting worse. However, in the end Eric Schlosser has declared many points to suggest that his study is correct. He has many sources which proves his knowledge about this topic prior to writing about it.In addition, he orders the essay really well by stating his opinion then backing it up with facts. The only thing he does not preform do in his essay, is explaining and expanding on the other side. Other than that, the essay is good and has made myself pay more attention to whom the advertisement is aimed toward. Works Cited Schlosser, Eric. Ã¢â¬Å"Kid Kustomers. Ã¢â¬ From Inquiry to Academic Writing. 2nd ed. Ed. Stuart Green and April Lidinsky. Boston: Bedford/ St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012. 519-527. Print.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Law of Evidence - Reliability and relevance - Essay Example Evidence can only be deemed to be relevant if it is used to prove or disprove a matter that is in issue before the court. Evidence adduced with the intention of causing the jury to disapprove of the defendant is generally inadmissible, unless it is properly presented as evidence of bad character to show the propensity of the defendant to a particular kind of crime. Since scientific evidence is a specific area of expertise it is essential that the person giving evidence relating to scientific findings is suitably qualified, and that the evidence can be relied upon in order to secure a conviction. It is not always easy to draw a distinction between a person who is giving an expert opinion as opposed to evidence of fact1 . The Criminal Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) were reformed in order to restrict the usage of expert evidence2. CPR r 35.1 states that Ã¢â¬Ëexpert evidence shall be restricted to that which is reasonably required to resolve the proceedings.Ã¢â¬â¢ One of the dangers asso ciated with the reliance of expert opinion is that miscarriages of justice may occur as a direct result. ... This case was very similar to R v Clark (no2) 4 in which the evidence of the same expert used in the Cannings case was regarded as reliable, resulting in the conviction of Clark for the murder of her 2 children. Professor Meadow, the expert in these cases was at the time carrying out a government funded report into the causes of sudden infant death. At the trial Professor Meadow made the observation that the chances of 2 children dying of cot death within ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s family situation could be compared to the chances of 4 different horses winning the Grand National in consecutive years at odds of 80 to 1. As a result of the elevated status of Professor Meadow as an expert in this field the jury concluded that the deaths could not have been natural causes. The courts have struggled consistently with the testing of expert evidence as there is no compulsory requirement for accreditation of the qualifications of the expert. There is also a lack of training for judges and barriste rs in the understanding of expert evidence, as well as training in judging the reliability of such evidence. In a report conducted by the House of Commons into the reliability of expert forensic evidence the report expressed concern that when the Forensic Science Service moved to the private sector the police service would no longer be able to ask the FSS to Ã¢â¬Ëprovide advice as to the reliability of forensic techniques5.Ã¢â¬â¢ At present there is no control over the testing of the reliability of expert witnesses, however, the Law Commission have recently tried to address this issue in the Criminal Evidence (experts) Bill which was published 22 March 20116. In this Bill it was recommended that a reliability based admissibility test should be established for
Friday, September 27, 2019
Global Management Information systems coursework - Essay Example The functional task produces and installs technology inside the organisation, which then facilitates in attaining the potential of computerizing business procedures within managerial activities (Laudon & Laudon, 2009, p. 192). The exploitation of an IT infrastructure is a requisite for this function and supports in choosing a business approach. In the same time, the aggressive function concentrates on competence by rising IS traitsÃ¢â¬â¢ means of getting new bases of competitive gain within the market by installing new IS functions. This role has a major effect on organisational alteration and sustains an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s aptitude to boost its IS potential (Bharati et al, 2010, p. 213). IS strategic planning aspects can be classified in various methods with respect to IS incorporation within business. The majority of configuration models are consisted of two aspects, Ã¢â¬Å"namely Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢, which considers both the external and internal environments of an organisatio n, and Ã¢â¬ËlinkageÃ¢â¬â¢, which is the business-IS alignmentÃ¢â¬ (Oz, 2008, p. 76). In addition, strategic IS planning (SISP) efficiency have five aspects, together with (1) configuration, (2) testing, (3) collaboration, (4) enhancement of potential, and (5) involvement. Nonetheless, these aspects of SISP efficiency are then controlled by Ã¢â¬Å"six process dimensions of SISPÃ¢â¬ (Hirsschheim et al, 2009, p. 222), - by (1) completeness, (2) formalisation, (3) concentration, (4) flow, (5) contribution, and (6) steadiness. A 3-phase model can be applied to assess these aspects in addition to their efficiency. This model has three phases: (1) introductory, (2) growing, and (3) established (Stair & Reynolds, 2011, p. 199). It has been debated that equilibrium should be present amid consistency and flexibility to authorize the procedure to be successful in controlling the organisation during the interim period while, at the same time, developing upcoming technology as well as markets. Each one of these tasks as well as aspects of IS decision makers in knowing the use of IS in the organisation and in finding out IS advantages. Keeping this in consideration, this effort considers the flexibility of applying strategic gains of global IS during IS strategic planning to create a classification for assessment as well as knowledge of these advantages. This classification may as well be utilized as a device to support the planning group during the IS planning procedure (Tan, 2002, p. 43). As a growing number of organizations increase their functions into global markets, with the intention of accomplish something, they should to be aware of the substantial civilizing, fiscal, as well as political variety that is present within different regions around the globe. For these reasons, despite the fact that IT is a significant facilitator and, on several occasions, a driver of international business growth, it cannot be applied homogeneously all over the world. In the last couple of years, the world has observed an extraordinary growth of commerce within international markets. Initially imagined by McLuhan (1964), the thought of a Ã¢â¬Ëglobal villageÃ¢â¬â¢, has become a reality at last. At the same time, there is awareness that IT has a vital part in the Ã¢â¬Å"race towards globalizationÃ¢â¬ (Avgerou, 2003, p. 99). IT has been a decisive facilitator of globalization in the majority of instances and an initiator in a number of cases. Now, transnational
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Statistics Mini-project - Essay Example And the equation is as below. In work fields, it is the order of the day that you can work with a person and end up being paid very little as compared to what he/she is getting at the end of the pay period (Mailu, S 2000). This is caused by many factors but majority tend to thing that, the level of education, sex, work experience, his/her race, the occupation one is in, the sector, the marital status, where one lives and whether one is a member of the union, has a lot to do with the remuneration package one gets. In view of this, the above project was carried out to determine whether this is true and if not what really matters in such situations. Data was collected and analyzed according to Jacob, C (1998). The way a certain group is represented in the sample determines a lot how that groups will behave and also how their findings will be generalized (Agnes, W 2002). In this case regression analysis is used to determine if the coefficients used are significant or not. According to Smith (2000), regression tells more of how a certain factor contributes towards the other. From tables 1-5 above, the whites earn a bit high than the other races although the difference in wage is not significant. The same applies to the gender; males are a bit high in wage than the females with a difference of 2.11 which is statistically different. Union members earn better than their counterparts who are not union members and have a significant difference of 2.16. In the different job categories, those working in management earn better followed by those that are professionals although the difference is not statistically significant. However, management and professional earn differently from the others categories and the various mean differences are statistically different at 95% confidence level. Clerical jobs are the poorly paid. Experience contributes much as well as the level of education one has attained. Furthers, those that have spend many years in
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Popular Culture Media The Production of Popular Culture ( See questionsessay thesis below) - Essay Example Retro presents history as an essential entity presented in a historical way giving historical references while reviving associated trends acts in conditions that comes under the conditions of discontinuity, rupture, and multiplicity. The boost in consumerism through retro vision and philosophy is because of the synchronous understanding that the retro would present the past as inspiration and bringing back the realities of life in a reflection. Though there is nothing like historic or authentic but is powerful enough to present the whole as a fusion of old and new. The aspects that are selected from the past are only positive. This position is not too concerned with the diversity within retro but looks at the various manifestations separately. The extreme swinging of retro of the present would led to the emergence of for instance from 1950s ladylike style with its prim to pretty look in the mid-1990s would help in bein
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Literary Criticism on the novel Atonement by Ian McEwan - Essay Example This essay discusses that from a formalistic theory of literature vantage point, the way in which McEwan uses grammar and syntax is developed to create a definitive undertone for the story and characters. As Briony is introduced, the writing has a tempo that is a bit staccato. One can feel her personality through the overuse of adjectives and descriptivism in order to emit the precocious, dramatic personality of a thirteen-year-old girl embroiled in the complexity of experiences that she was not yet able to process. Ã¢â¬Å"Briony was hard to know it then, but this was the project's highest point of fulfillment. Nothing came near it for satisfaction, all else was dreams and frustration.Ã¢â¬ In conclusion, as the story is told, the use of words creates the proper moods and enhances the characterizations. As the consequences of actions are played through, the dilemma of the writer is characterized. Ã¢â¬Å"The problem these fifty-nine years has been this: how can a novelist achieve atonement when, with her absolute power of deciding outcomes, she is also God?Ã¢â¬ As the reader becomes involved and inserts his or her own experiences into the consequences of the novel, nuances of viewpoint change the way in which the reader will respond. As well, the universal symbolism that utilizes helps to clearly define the journey that is undertaken. As the different literary theories are examined in context, the novel, Atonement, by Ian McEwan becomes a tapestry of emotional content that touches on universal themes.
Monday, September 23, 2019
The conservation management of Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) in Madagascar. Is conservation action carried out for Coquerel's sifaka successful - Essay Example This has been attributed to depreciation in its natural habitat due to invasion of man in the forests. Fires caused by nature and man are a menace to the animal since it derives its upkeep from the very vegetation and forest that is destroyed in the process. Hunting is another threat that is posed to the species as the human populations continue to rise. The government in the island has several Nature Reserves and special reserves in place so as to conserve the most endangered ecological habitats. The two significant National Parks where these primates can be found are the Ankarafantsika National Park and the Bora Special Reserve (Wallis, 1997). Communities have also been involved in the task of trying to protect the lemurs. They have been educated on the special needs and behaviors of Coquerels Sifaka and how to coexist peacefully with them. There are various proposals by the Malagasy government that are aimed at putting structures in place to help identify the most viable and practical ways of conservation. This has led to the establishment of data pools containing information on various species, their habitats, and behaviors. In addition, the public is made aware of various development strategies instigated for those animals that may be caught. Key collaborations have been instrumental in ensuring that conservation efforts are sustained on a long term basis. This was evident in the1986 Government Conference that focused on the conservation of the diverse ecosystems present in Madagascar by devising new and effective management systems. In addition, there was a project plan in 1986 to investigate the protected areas, and come up with ways of better enhancing their rich biodiversity (Richard, 1978). The Coquerels Sifaka can be said to survive longer with the passing of generations if the above efforts continue. However, it has been reported that hunting has been in the extreme in Ankarafantsika for this
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Product Reassessment - Essay Example This essay will provide insight of a plan for repositioning Blu Ray Disk into Korean market by focusing on demographics characteristics based on US census data. Additionally, the type of research needed have been scrutinized as well as methods that can be used to increase adoption rates of Blu Ray Disk. The distribution problems that are likely to be encountered in Korean market and ways of addressing them have been scrutinized. This may involve determining how the Blu Ray Disk may fit into Korean market given the fact that some new features have been added in order to meet customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and wants (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). The following are three components for an effective and efficient repositioning of Blu Ray Disk into Korean market; there must be product positioning, market positioning and brand positioning. Product positioning focus on making Blu Ray disk unique from other disk available in Korean market (Clancy, Krieg & Wolf, 2005). This may be achieved by conducting product differentiation whereby, some cognitive and unique features may be added into the Blu Ray Disk to enhance their capacity and usage (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). On the other hand, Market positioning may help in identification of marketing strategies, whereby; the position of available and impending competitors may be evaluated. Additionally, SWOT analysis model may be applied to identify strength and weakness of competitors in the target market (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). Finally, brand positioning focus on taking into consideration the following attributes; consumer perceptions, brand attributes, price attributes and competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ attributes (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). Consumer perceptions may help to evaluate the minds of consumer concerning the available products supplied by the company (Pride & Ferrell, 2012).The issue of price should be taken into consideration. The company should evaluate their prices in relation to those of competitors in
Saturday, September 21, 2019
JosÃ © Rizals University Years Essay Fortunately, RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s first romance, with its bitter disillusionment,did not adversely affect his studies in the University of Santo Tomas.His love for higher education proved to be greater than his love for apretty girl. After finishing the first year of the course in Philosophy andLetters (1877-780), he transferred to a medical course. During theyear of his studies in the university, which was under the Dominicans,rival education of the Jusuits, he remained loyal to Ateneo, where hecontinued to participate in extra curricular activities and where hecompleted the education course in surveying. As a Thomasian, he wonmore literary laurels, had more romances with girls, and foughtagainst Spanish students. MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s position to higher education. After graduation withthe highest position in Ateneo, Rizal had to go the University of Santo Tomas in order to prepare him self to a private career. The Bachelor of arts degree during Spanish times was equivalent to a high schooldiploma today. It merely qualified its holder to enter a university. BothDon Francisco and Paciano that Jose should pursue a higher learning.But Dona Teodora did not want him to study more. Evidently she had apremonition that to much knowledge would imperil his child life.In a family council in the RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s home in Calamba, shevigorously objected to have her beloved Jose acquired a highereducation. She was thinking of the safety of her son. She know thefate of Filipino intellectuals-Father Burgos, Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor,Jose Ma. Basa, and others of 1872-who were either executed or exiledby the Spanish authorities, and blamed their sad fate to their learning.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Effect Of Content Based Instruction Content-Based Instruction (CBI) as an approach has been defined as an approach to second language teaching in which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllabus (Richard and Rodgers, 2001, p. 204). In this case, learners learn about some skills instead of learning about language. This teaching approach combines language and content, so it is considered as an effective teaching method by many researchers. CBI can be used in various ways for different skills and includes not only traditional teaching methods such as grammar-based instruction but also functional method such as Communicative Language Teaching. CBI is also supported by Krashens Monitor Model. According to this model, when learners receive comprehensible input, it is less difficult to learn the target language. And as a result, they can acquire it. And CBI has some features, including learning a language through academic skills and engaging in activities, that lead to meaningful and comprehensible input. II. Background Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) indicates a major change in language teaching in twentieth century. The origins of CLT can be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition. Until then, Situational Language Teaching was the major British approach to the teaching English as a foreign language. CLT centers on giving students opportunities to practice using communicative function. In these activities, students use English to learn it rather than learning to use English. Among the practices of communicative-based methods, CBI is one of the approaches that its popularity and applicability have been increased since the 1990s. Saint Augustine made some recommendations regarding focus on meaningful content in language teaching. This can be the reason that some researchers, including Brinton, Snow and Wesche, suggest that Saint Augustine was an early proponent of Content-Based Language Teaching. In the 1970s, other educational plans had been designed. They all emphasize the principle of acquiring content through language rather than the study of language. Although there are slight differences in their aims, all the models agree with the role of language as a means of learning content. CBI took some of its theory and design from these plans. I will briefly take into account the role of content in these plans. Language across the Curriculum is a suggestion for native language education. It was recommended by a British governmental commission in the 1970s. It emphasizes a focus on reading and writing in different subjects. It also had an effect on American education, and the slogan every teacher, an English teacher became well-known to every instructor. However, this suggestion didnt have an influential effect on classrooms. Immersion Education had an effect on the theory of CBI as well. In this plan, the ordinary school syllabus is taught through the foreign language. The foreign language is not the subject of instruction. In fact, its a means for achieving content instruction. For example, a Spanish speaking child may enter an elementary school where the language of instruction for the entire content subject is French. Since the 1970s, immersion programs have been used in many parts of North America, and new forms of immersion have been planned. In the United States, immersion program can be considered in a number of languages, including French, German, Spanish, Japanese, and Chinese. Immigrant On-Arrival Program usually gives attention on the language of those immigrants who are recently arrived. Immigrants need to know the language of the country they live in. Australia was the first country that designed such a course. For a particular situation, notional, functional and grammatical instructions are integrated. And its usual course covers those parts of language that are needed to deal with government organization, shopping, finding a job, and so on. Australia uses Direct Method as the methodology of recently arrived immigrants. Programs for Students with Limited English Proficiency are used for two groups of children. First, these programs are used for those children whose language competence is not adequately developed in order to participate in normal classrooms. Second, they are used for those children who have immigrated to another country, and their parents participate in immigrant on-arrival program. These programs try to make children ready in order to be able to enter the normal classrooms. Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) is an attempt in order to perform particular roles (e.g. student, nurse, teacher, businessman, engineer, and technician) according to the needs of learners. LSP has paid special attention on English for Science and Technology (EST). In EST courses, learners learn to read technical articles or to write academic papers in different fields of science. III. Definition, Theories Ideas CBI involves the integration of content learning with language teaching. It refers to the concurrent study of language and subject matter. In other words, students are learning content (e.g. math, science, social studies, business, etc) at the same time they are developing their target language skills. There is also a variety of definitions of content. Some researchers believe that content is clearly an academic subject matter while others believe that it can be any topic, theme or issue of interest. It is indicated that language learning is more motivating when learners focus on something other than language. It can also be stated as people learn a second language most successfully when the information they are acquiring is perceived as interesting, useful, and leading to a desired goal (Richard Rodgers, 2001, p. 204). Usually, language is used for some purposes. And the purpose may refer to peoples jobs and education. So, its obvious that when peoples purposes are achieved through language learning, it will make gaining language knowledge a lot easier. Also, CBI classrooms can produce an increase in intrinsic motivation, since students are focus on subject matter that is important to their lives. And, students are beyond temporary extrinsic factors, like grades and tests. It can also be declared as when language becomes the medium to convey informational content of interest and relevance to the learner, then learners are pointed toward matters of intrinsic concern (Brown, 2001, p. 49). CBI shares the same basic principles with CLT and can be regarded as a logical development of some of the principles of CLT, particularly those rules that relate to the role of meaning in language learning. Because CBI provides an approach that is especially suited prepare ESL students to enter elementary or secondary education, it is widely used in English-speaking countries around the world. A difference between CBI and other kinds of language syllabus is how the elements for language study are selected. For example, in a grammatical syllabus, the items that are supposed to be learned are grammar points. They are selected in advance either by second language researcher or by teachers judgments about what grammar points should be presented first, second, third, and so on. The syllabus can even be determined by the course textbook. However, in CBI classrooms, the form and sequence of language syllabus are determined by content material. Instead of having a pre-selected grammar syllabus or list of vocabulary items, the grammar and vocabulary that are supposed to be learned come from the content material. So, it can be stated that since CBI refers to an approach rather than a method, no particular techniques or activities are related with it. IV. Assessment in CBI Classes Assessment in CBI classes can be problematic, but it is essential that teachers should evaluate learners learning. Usually in EFL classes, a learners performance is evaluated by assessment tasks such as discrete, de-contextualized tasks. And their central focus is on linguistic structure or vocabulary. However, students in CBI classes cannot be evaluated in the traditional way because they are exposed to more input and content through the class. Instead, CBI assessment must be simultaneously authentic and interactive. Students are required to interact with academic materials according to meaningful and contextualized text in order to analyze their knowledge. Also, assessment of CBI should not be simple and isolated. Students must integrate information in order to form their own opinions about subject matter. V. Models of CBI In the 1980s, four models are made according to the principles of CBI. These models can only be applied at the university levels. The examples of the most common models of CBI are theme-based language instruction, and sheltered content instruction. Theme-based language instruction refers to a kind of class that is based on a particular theme or topic such human rights or discrimination. Sheltered content instruction refers to a kind of class that learning of content material with only incidental language learning is considered as the goal. VI. Conclusion Today, Content-based courses are frequent in different countries since the 1980s, and this method is often used in ESP (English for Specific Purposes) classes where the content of input plays a significant role. It has been indicated that vocabulary is easier to acquire when there are contextual clues in order to make a connection between vocabulary and meaning. Moreover, when learners become aware of the relation between language learning and their favored goals, they become even more motivated to learn. Learners feel that learning is a kind of impressive thing because they know that they are studying authentic content material (not material that are made for all the foreign learners) in the target language. They know that it is a means to an end rather than an end in itself. It has also been proved to be a valid approach for language teaching at all stages of instruction, from elementary school to university levels, both in second or foreign language teaching settings. Generally CBI advocates claim that this approach leads to more successful results in comparison with other language teaching approaches. Because it provides a number of opportunities for teachers in order to match learners interests and needs with interesting, meaningful and contextualized content.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Grendel: Apples and Pain Grendel has a sarcastic and cynical mind, which serves to entertain both him and the reader. Through his expositions of situations, we see humor where others would simply see violence, and irony where others only fact. These others are the humans, the Danes, unwitting neighbors of Grendel, forced to stand night after night of slaughter. What is a traumatic and terrifying experience for them, is simply a game to Grendel, and the reader. Grendel bursts in on the Danes, ready to kill, and they squeak. They are funny in their fear, laughable in their drunken fighting. The reader is focused on GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the Danes. The deaths go by easily, because of the humor involved. It does not cross the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that these are people Grendle is killing. The humor allows the reader to sympathize with GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s position, that of the predator. The prey is not meaningful, only nutritious and entertaining. It is a macabre humor, which accentuates how no death is nobl e, it is simply death. By making the Danes un-heroic and un-ideal, cowards and drunkards, the author is presenting the reality through the humor. In contrast to the drunken lurching of the others, Unferth comes toward Grendel with speeches and bravery. He is a puffed up as a peacock, proud and ready to die for his king, his people, his ideal. Grendel simply states, Ã¢â¬Å"He was one of those.Ã¢â¬ Grendel sees Unferth with a clear and unbiased mind. He is ridiculous. His exaggerated heroism, his words, even his first move, to scuttle sideways like a crab from thirty feet away, is laughable. Grendle does with him what he does with no other Dane in the story, he talks. Unferth offers Grendle death, and Grendle sends back taunts. The reason this scene is funny is because the taunts are sharply accurate. The self-sacrificing hero is shown to be a spotlight loving fool, serving only his own reputation. Grendel continues talking to Unferth, making the poor wretch angrier by the moment. At one point, he compares Unferth to a harvest virgin. Unferth attempts to begin his own speeches, but is always cut off by Grendel, who has another barb to throw at him. Finally, Unferth screams and charges, his voice breaking. This scene, of escalating argument, presents a different type of humor. While the first was a slapstick, exaggerated and dark humor, the argument is more sarcastic, intelligent and cutting.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
John F. Kennedy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his pen car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, apparently by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, makind decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences. His symbolic figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation into a new era of prosperity. From his birth into the powerful and influential Kenndy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917 in Brookline, Massachuasetts. His father, Joe, Sr., was a successful businessman with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe Sr., was given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Comminision and later the prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britian. His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips around historic Boston learning about American revolutionary history. Both parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the Kennedys. Whatever benefits the family received from the country they were told, must be returned by preforming some service for the country. The Kennedy clan included Joe, Jr., Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia, Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr., was a significant figure in yound JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s like as he was the figure for most of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s admiration. His older brother was much bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himslef to be JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s coach and protector. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood was full of sports, fun and activity. This all ended when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of 13, John left home to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallinford, Connecticut completed his elementary education. John graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He spent the rest of the sumer trying to recover. He ... ... on January 3, 1967. Kennedy was the first President to be born in the 20th Century and was very much a man of his time. He was restless, seeking, with a thirst of knowledge, and he had a feeling of deep commitment, not only to the people of the United States, but to the peoples of the world. Many of the causes he fouhgt for exist today because of what he did for the rights of minorities, the poor, the very old and the very young. He never took anything for granted adn worked for everything he owned. Perhaps Kennedy summed up his life best in his own inaugural speech: Ã¢â¬Å"Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country.Ã¢â¬ Bibliography: Jim Marrs CROSSFIRE: THE PLOT THAT KILLED KENNEDY, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1989. James DiEugenio, DESTINY BETRAYED: JFK, CUBA, AND THE GARRISON CASE, New York: Sheridan Square Press, Inc., 1992. Harrison Edward Livingstone, HIGH TREASON 2, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1992. www.ourworld.compuserve.com/homepage/MGriffith/suspects.htm J.F.K. & the cold war Urs Schwarz, John F. Kennedy, C.J. Bucher Ltd 1964 Elizabeth Greenup, Case Studies in Modern History, 1987
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Alicia Moore (Pink) Alicia Moore, or Pink as she is better known, has become a music sensation around the United States. My reason for choosing her as a topic is the fact that she was born and raised in Doylestown, Pennsylvania my hometown. Doylestown is about an hour northeast of Philadelphia, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to take note of anyone famous who comes out of D-Town, as it is called, because it is not the largest of areas. Pink went to the rival high school of mine, Central Bucks High School West, and I actually know a few people who knew her as Alicia Moore through various activities. Pink had a very rough childhood. She wanted to leave her house and envisioned a better life for herself when she was growing up. "I was screwed up, lost and unhappy," she said of her childhood. Her parents were fighting all the time and eventually divorced when Pink was only eight years old. She had little interest in school, got kicked of the house by her mother when she was 15, and went to live with her father and then dropped out of C.B. West her junior year. She claims she never even had any friends her own age. "My best friend was an 85-year-old woman who lived across the street," she said. Despite a difficult childhood, she always felt music was going to be her life. "I always knew I wanted to sing. I would tell my first grade teachers, 'Homework? What? I'm a rock star!' Seriously, I had it in my mind and that's why I fought with my parents so much because I was 30 by the time I was 10. I was ready to go, like, 'Come on. Put me onstage. Where's Star Search? What's going on?' An d it couldn't happen fast enough." After dropping out, Pink worked in places like Pizza Hut, McDonalds and Wendy's, but she was never on time and basically, hated tak... ...t happened all over again." PinkÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality is really shown throughout her life, from the desire to be a musician from a young age, to her comments on the other music icons of her age and gender. PinkÃ¢â¬â¢s music is unique and no two songs seem to sound the same. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s a girl that knows what she wants and I think this will aid in her staying atop the charts for a long time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s seems very impressive and almost a claim to fame for my hometown, that Alicia Moore, Pink, a Doylestown native, has made such a large impact on the world of music. Works Cited: MSN Web Page, http://ninemsn.com.au/entertainment/music/pink.asp The Billboard Music Web Page, http://www.billboard.com The Detroit Free Press Web Page, http://www.freep.com/entertainment/music/pink30_20011130.htm The MTV Web Page, http://www.mtv.com/bands/p/pink/news_feature_112101/index2.jhtml
Monday, September 16, 2019
Friedrich William Froebel (1782-1852) had a significant influence on early childhood education as we know it today. He is known as the inventor of kindergarten, a German word meaning Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s gardenÃ¢â¬ . The model of the modern day kindergarten was conceived by Froebel, who opened his own kindergarten in 1836, calling it a Play and Activity Institute. There he implmented such practices as promoting a childÃ¢â¬â¢s right to play, to have toys, and to be in the care of trained teachers. He believed that education should be pleasant for the child, because of his own unhappy childhood, instead of shifting the role of the teacher from strict disciplinarian to friendly facilitator. Froebel also had the idea that men as well as women should teach, which was not heard of in those times. His system of teaching was centered around self activity and the development of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s self- esteem rather than relying on sterile and rigid instructions. (Hewes 1993). Froebel observed the children and came to an understanding of how they learned and what they like to do. It was his belief that children learned much in the process of playing. (Ann Miles Gordon and Kathryn Williams Browne 21, 22) We can see the fruits of Froebel vision alive today in a variety of ways. For example, many early childhood programs are teacher-directed, with the focus being on planting ideas for the children to cultivate in their own time. Also, you may encounter a teacher of the male persuasion in your childÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom. Often, teachers in early childhood education are required to pursue some type of training and/or education relating to childcare, which was encouraged by Froebel. ( Ann Miles Gordon and Kathryn Williams Browne 21, 22) FroebelÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy was that life was a school and the world was a classroom. He wanted the environment in which children learn to be full of discovery and adventure. He called the educational toys he created Ã¢â¬Å"giftsÃ¢â¬ , giving us insight into how he viewed learning and the teaching of the young mind. There are children in kindergarten all over the world thanks to the dedication of Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel. His work is an accomplishment that reflects on the way children are taught and cared for today. (Ann Miles Browne and Kathryn Williams Browne 21,22) Works Cited Gordon, Ann Miles and Kathryn Williams Brown. Beginnings and Beyond-Foundations in Early Childhood Education. 8th ed. California. Wadsworth. 2011, 2008.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices which results in a decline in the purchasing power of money. Inflation is measured through the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which measures proportional changes in prices in a representative Ã¢â¬Å"basketÃ¢â¬ of gÃ¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢s, weighted according to their importance in a typical Australian households budget. The RBA aims to keep inflation at an annual rate of 2-3%, and in order to do this a number of policies are available for the Australian government.Keeping Inflation under control is a primary concern for the Australian Government as it affects so many different parts of the Economy, including Economic growth, standard of living and unemployment. There are three types of inflation, depending on their causes. Firstly, demand pull inflation occurs when there is an excessive aggregate demand at or near full employment. If aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply, prices of gÃ¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢s rise as a rationing mechanism. This form of inflation is usually associated with periods of high economic activity.Secondly is cost-push inflation. If business costs such as the cost of wages or materials rise, businesses may aim to maintain profit levels by passing these costs onto consumers. This will result in higher prices and therefore inflation. The final type of inflation is imported inflation. Imported inflation occurs when the price of imports rises, and either adds to business costs (resulting in cost-push inflation) or feeds into the CPI as the price of final goods. Furthermore, a depreciation in the Au$ will raise import prices, also adding to imported inflation.There are a number of factors which may cause inflation in the Australian economy. A major cause of demand-pull inflation is excessive growth in aggregate demand. If aggregate demand increases from AD to AD1, aggregate supply which is the equivalent of real GDP will rise to GDP2 and the price level will rise from P to P2. This results in the inflationary gap of cd. This increase in aggregate demand may be the result of a number of factors, including increases in consumption expenditure, investment spending, net government expenditure, the money supply, or export incomes.Another major cause of inflation, this time cost-push inflation, is a decrease in aggregate supply. If aggregate supply decreases from AS to AS1, real GDP will decrease to GDP2 and the price level will rise to P1. This results in both a contraction in real GDP and a rise in inflation. The main causes of this decrease in aggregate supply is excessive wage growth not accompanied by productivity increase, a rise in the cost of raw materials, and other inputs, or a rise in government taxes or other charges that raise costs for firms.Cost-push inflation may also be the result of imported inflation it there is a rise in world prices of imported goods used in the production process (such as raw materials and intermediate goods) firms are lik ely to pass these costs onto consumers, resulting in inflation on the other hand if there is a rise in world prices of consumer goods, increased import prices will feed directly into the CPI, also resulting in inflation. Furthermore a depreciation in the Au$ in foreign exchange markets will result in a rise in the prices of imported raw materials, intermediate goods, and consumer goods, again contributing to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s inflation.This is demonstrated in the stimulus when the RBA credits the decrease in inflation to the fading impact of 2000s exchange rate depreciation. A less common cause of inflation is the existence of monopolies or oligopolies. If a monopoly or oligopoly exists in an industry, the lack of competition allows producers to push up prices. This again results in inflation. The final cause of inflation in Australia is inflationary expectations. Inflationary expectations refer to the behaviour of individuals and businesses who seek to compensate for the current i nflation, as well as expected future price rises.This may be the result of either firms pushing up prices, or wage earners seeking higher nominal wages. Also, if consumers expect future prices to rise, they rather buy gÃ¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢s now, which leads to increases in spending. This results in demand-pull inflation. Inflation can impact the economy in 3 ways. 1)By encouraging investment in speculative and unproductive activities and discouraging investment in ventures considered productive. Inflation encourages investment in real assets such as gold and real estate because they are considered Ã¢â¬Ëgood sheltersÃ¢â¬â¢ for inflation.This is because the scarcity of them often outpaces or at least keeps pace with the rate of inflation. If inflation occurs, people will seek to own such assets, shifting resources to these speculative and unproductive assets. Similarly this discourages investment in other assets. This is because entrepreneurs will not think it is financially viable t o invest and pursue a project that will only result in less profit, due to the higher costs of inflation. Similarly inflation increases the cost of production thus also discouraging entrepreneurs.For example, if inflation is high, people will invest in gold and real estate. Otherwise known as the opportunity cost, because people will allocate their resources into such ventures (gold and real estate) they must then forego investing into other ventures that are considered productive such as a new business, that may be producing capital goods or normal goods and services. Also by discouraging entrepreneurs is the rise in the costs of production that occur due to inflation, for example the raw materials.Similarly interest rates will rise, making it more expensive to borrow funds for investment purposes, making investment projects less profitable. Either way, inflation can cause a loss in production of capital goods, leading to lower living standards in the future, or a loss in the produ ction of normal goods and services, leading to lowering current living conditions, as current needs and wants go unsatisfied. Since returns from productive capital take longer to materialise, it means that entrepreneurs are also faced with a lesser return.This means that if the rate of inflation is greater than the return offered by the investment, then the project will not be considered economically viable, nor worthwhile. Similarly the risk of loss from any investment project will grow with inflation. Many small businesses take a couple of years before they start to make a profit, so if inflation is high, and is was not taken into account when the business was first planned, then the cost of production may rise, and the resulting price for the commodity will be too high for consumers. ) If inflation is present and is greater than that overseas, it reduces the overseas competitiveness of the Australian economy. This is because inflation is not only associated with a rise in prices, but also an increase to the costs of production. Therefore making overseas exports cheaper to the domestic market. Similarly the overseas firms do not have to put up with the rises in the costs of production. This provides a leakage in the circular flow (purchase of exports) and thus dampening demand in the domestic market, which if severe enough could lead to a recession, bringing with it many economic problems.An example of how inflation can lead to a recession, would be the 1970s, when high inflation averaged at 10. 4%. Which due to the high oil prices and strong domestic demand led to high inflation in the 1980s (8. 1%). This period of high inflation led to a dampening in spending and a recession in the 1990s (1990-1992) causing many problems such as unemployment. 3) It also creates many winners and losers in the economy. Those that benefit are the owners of real assets (real assets and gold), because their assets are worth more.As well as those belonging to well-organized grou ps who can demand wage increases (eg, strong trade unions. ) This can lead to rapidly rising wages, increasing the costs of production, and also discouraging investment in productive capital as mentioned above. In addition to this inflation can benefit people who have already borrowed funds because the cost of repayment, represent less as inflation rises. This is because inflation is defined by a loss in the real value of money, therefore the repayment will diminish over time.Conversely inflation disadvantages those on fixed incomes because they lose the real value of income as their money represents less purchasing power. Similarly for the same reasons it disadvantages those that keep their money in liquid form (ie, bank deposits). Also those that lend money receive less back in terms of repayment, due to the loss in value (eg, A mortgage repayment in 1960 was worth more than in 1980, where high inflation had occurred).Also since it reduces international competitiveness, inflation can disadvantage exporters who find themselves with less business opportunities. This can effect the economy, as overseas markets will not purchase Australian goods and services. Therefore the economy will not receive the injection into the circular flow that it would usually, without inflation. Without the strong domestic support that is present in AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, the economy could have the effect of dampening economic activity, and aggregate demand.When inflation occurs in the Australian economy it usually had a number of causes. The main causes are excess aggregate demand, cost-push inflation, inflationary expectations and imported inflation. inflation disadvantages many groups in the economy, who in turn benefit other groups. This is because inflation can influence the allocation of resources in regards to encouraging and discouraging investment, the overseas competitiveness of the Australian market, as well as effecting individuals and firms, who often benefit at th e expense of others.
Every person approaches life with a certain perspective or worldview which could be identified with a specific ethical theory. Which ethical theoretical framework best describes your personal worldview? Support your response with examples. The larger community-citizens, patients, inter professional team members, and nursing peers expect and are entitled to more than simply knowledge and competence. They expect good character from us.Virtues related with good character in nursing have progressed over time from those such as cleanliness and self-sacrifice to include several depicted in the framework and considered essential to the process of developing a healthy workplace and generous ethical climate such as compassion, fidelity, veracity, and prudence. Compassion is known as the cornerstone of healthcare providers' practice, a critical trait necessary to the delivery of morally good care.For example, practicing compassion with other members of the acute and critical care team may also contribute to sustaining an ethical practice environment, because it is a component of moral sensitivity. Moral sensitivity is necessary to recognition that an ethical dilemma exists. Without moral sensitivity and compassion, members of the healthcare team may not be able to see that a problem exists or may unknowingly tolerate ethically objectionable acts or conditions.This recognition also involves the ability to appreciate the perspectives of others, including team members, by acknowledging their values, beliefs, and obligations. Compassion and moral sensitivity include awareness of the various courses of action and how each may affect all members concerned, the patient, family members, and others on the inter professional team (Mickey, Catherine, 2009) Reference: Mickey L. Parsons PhD, MHA, RN, FAAN, Catherine Robichaux PhD, RN, CCRN, CNS
Saturday, September 14, 2019
As we come in to a cemetery, we might be filled with fears or have some sort of dreadful feeling. Our first impression may be of dark cold nights and ended lives. What is a scary and dreadful place for some people; it is a very meaningful place for me. This place is so meaningful to me because my father is buried there. Cemeteries are important to bringing perspective and serenity, because they bring us a connection to where we came from, it helps us realize the tenderness of life, and they help us to relax a little bit through their calmness. I have had so many things impact my life and they all seem to end up in the same place. Cemeteries are not the dreaded and scary things of superstitions. They are holding places for memories and faith. The memories I hold from Bellevue memorial park are not from within the place itself but from the people it holds. It helped me realize the delicacy of life by taking many people I loved before I expected them to go. My father is buried in my most meaningful place; my grandma and one of my uncles are there too. The day we buried my dad it was a beautiful day outsides, it was nice and sunny although it looked like it was going to rain. As I entered the cemetery I saw tombstones piled up from left to right and right to left , thereÃ¢â¬â¢s was people buries in every direction. On one corner there are tombstones dated as far back as the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, those are the oldest tombs. Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a section as you are coming in to the cemetery, called the mausoleum. As you go in there itÃ¢â¬â¢s very quiet, but the smell of the mausoleum is the same smell of a rotting piece of meat. As you approach to the middle section of the cemetery there is the baby section. This section is always filled with balloons flowers and all kinds of decorations, for their birthdays or special occasions. This is the saddest section of the whole cemetery because you always see at least 1 mother crying to their dead child. In the older sections of the cemetery there where caskets coming out the ground, you could see that since they have been there too long the dirt has pushed them out. I walked around the whole cemetery and I felt sad for all f these people that have lost their lives in accidents, crimes, or just health problems. I kind of felt like I was in fear of losing my life too, because I was surrounded by death. As we approached to the section where my father was going to be buried, it smelled like fresh flowers and plants, but if u smelled deep enough there was a humid smell in the air of the rotting corpses underneath the ground I was stepping on. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been at this ce metery three times and as close as I can remember it felt the same. I felt scared, anxious; my heart beat was accelerating as we were getting closer to putting my loved ones underground. The grass was green and freshly cut; it seemed as if they had just cut it for this occasion. Every time I go to the cemetery IÃ¢â¬â¢m not scared anymore I feel peaceful, when you go there you get relaxed because itÃ¢â¬â¢s very quiet, there is no sound in sight all u can hear is the static in your ears. Also itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to explain the emotions you get as you enter a cemetery; you feel sad, scared, anxious lots of mixed emotions. One thing I remember the most is the feeling of knowing that once my dad was going underground I was never going to see him again all I was left with was his memory and his tomb.
Friday, September 13, 2019
4 discussion questions - Assignment Example Personally I believe the development of IPv6 appropriately overcomes the issues occurring with IPv4. In order to improve performance, I believe the need to adopt and upgrade to newer technology is stronger than improving the current version of technology which is readily approaching its decline. Microsoft and UNIX is an ongoing debate which has been discussed by numerous critics. Microsoft evidently has a competitive edge due to its mass bundled offerings and relentless marketing. Microsoft is rampantly available everywhere, bundled along with most PCs/Laptops. Also, the fully loaded services available with Microsoft come as an exclusive attraction for many users. The issue of ethicality of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to bundle its services yet needs to be resolved. However, it is unanimously believed that Microsoft had intended to create its monotony rule in the IT industry. It has increased its operations to such an extent that the court proceedings ordered for its operations to be broken down into smaller independent units. I believe the court rulings were absolutely
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Wildlife and Wind Energy. Leah - Essay Example The researcher did cover the topic well and broad enough. She discussed how wind energy is a great potential of cleaner and renewable source of energy but it will be more successful if further measures of conserving the habitat are embraced. The researcher concentrated mostly on the negatives of the energy production method and provided measures which if implemented could reduce fatality rate of wildlife. The methods discussed include radar technology, GPS tracking, Ultrasonic acoustics and design of the wind turbines. Studies have been conducted to determine the effect of industrial wind turbines on the environment. There are both positive and negative effects which provide clear evidence. Modern turbines are developed in a way that birds canÃ¢â¬â¢t rest on them. This still is not a proper solution because the birds still rest on the generators which have rotating blades that can slaughter them. Many nations are contemplating on methods of generating more sustainable, domestically available energy. Wind energy is seen as the most convenient method because it has economic benefits of development, lack of water consumption and emissions during operation and has low impact on humans. This can be the best method of energy production if it will cater for the wildlife
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Decision Usefulness approach vs. Measurement Approach - Research Paper Example This research will begin with the Decision Useful Approach. This approach motivates the application of decision models. The approach is based on the concept that if financial statements cannot be prepared correctly, then financial statements must be presented in such a manner so as to reflect useful information focusing on users and the decision problems that they face. The approach assumes that if the financial and accounting is useful to investors, then trading volume of stocks should experience a surge and securities prices are also expected to increase or respond in predictable manner relative to publicly available accounting information. The Single-Pearson decision theory aims to understand how an investor makes rational decisions under circumstances of certainty. The theory appreciates the concept of information and enables decision makers to keep informed and modernize their beliefs. The concept uses the publicly available financial statements as source of information. The rat ionale or principle of portfolio diversification is as follows: Maintain a balance between risk and return Assurance that the different securities held for investment are negatively correlated which will give an assurance of protection in case of any market shortfall and an expectation of positive returns. Diversification of investment reduces the risk underlying the investment. Investment in a single stock of a particular company increases the substantial risk attached with the particular investment. The Optimal Portfolio Investment The concept of optimal investment falls under modern portfolio theory and assumes that investors prefer to minimize risk while striving for maximizing their expected returns. (Source: Spreadsheetml.com, http://www.spreadsheetml.com/finance/freeportfoliooptimization.shtml, 2013) The theory states investors will act rationally and thus they will always make decisions that will aim at maximizing their expected return for given tolerable level of risk. Portfolio Risk It is one of the concepts used in risk-return analysis that gives an estimate of actual returns relative to expected returns of an investment. Important factors which are considered in measuring portfolio risks are standard
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Marriage and Sexuality by Saint Paul - Essay Example Somehow, St. Paul, in his Epistle, appears to be arguing against peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s entering into marital union, as marriage and sex, according to him, push humans away from spiritual uplift. It is therefore St. Paul supports the idea of refraining from sexual activities, including marriage, to remain committed to religious activities and the service of church only. Since hunger and sex serve as two basic human instincts, and it is hard for humans to completely avoid any of the two, the Lord has taught the manners to satisfy both the instincts according to His holy commandments. Ã¢â¬Å"The Bible presents marriage as a divine institution. If marriage were of human origin, then human beings would have a right to decide the kind of marital relationships to choose. Marriage, however, began with God. It was established by God at the beginning of human history when He "created the heavens and the earthÃ¢â¬ . It is therefore the Scripture declares marriage as a sacred association between man and woman due to the very reality that it not only satisfies the carnal desires of the humans in an adequate manner, but also gives birth to the concept of family and blood relationship in its wake. Marriage is actually a sacred way to carry on natureÃ¢â¬â¢s system of sending new generations to replace the old ones that has been the order of the day as well as law of nature since manÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival on the face of the earth. Further, marriage keeps the souls pious and save the individuals from going astray by getting indulged into lustful activities including adultery, fornication, sodomy, rape and other forms of immorality and indecency; as the Bible states that Ã¢â¬Å"having oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own husband or wife should keep one from doing something immoral.Ã¢â¬ ... adultery, fornication, sodomy, rape and other forms of immorality and indecency; as the Bible states that Ã¢â¬Å"having oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own husband or wife should keep one from doing something immoral.Ã¢â¬ (Corinthians, 7:2) Additionally, the children produced out of the wedlock also enjoy the status of legitimate offspring, where they maintain social position and respect, and share in the inheritance of their parents. Besides, children also carry on the mission and talent of their parents, which is equally beneficial for the humanity at large. Moreover, children are also recognized as belonging to some particular caste, clan, tribe, ethnicity, religion and family. Consequently, they are the responsibility of their parents, and society can force them to feed, clothe and protect them according to their income and resources. Somehow, St. Paul, through Corinthians 7, considers celibacy and maintenance of virginity as the most admirable thing. The Epistle views marriage as a burden on th e very back of the individuals, which drifts them far away from their spiritual duties and obligations. Hence, married people get involved into worldly pursuits and run amuck after pelf, property, power and possessions in order to feed their family and brought up the young ones in a better way. Since materialism and spirituality are absolutely two contradictory issues, pursuit of one creates and increases distance from the other. Corinthians 7:25-27 vehemently suggest the men and women to avoid marriage and sex, as it is superior to getting involved into sexual activity. Although, according to St. Paul, the Lord has not forbidden it, yet he himself recommends celibacy as it is (spiritually) better than marriage. Control of carnal desires is certainly more blissful than displaying them to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s
Monday, September 9, 2019
Why juveniles run away, and what should be done with them when they are cought - Research Paper Example The issue of children running away from their homes has become popular in recent time due to their ever-increasing numbers. It is estimated that about one and a half million juveniles go missing from their homes, of which, only less than 20% returns into their homes (Zhang, Antonio, David & Victor, 2007). They also assert that about 12% of the youths in the united states run away from their homes at least once before they become adults due to various reasons that shall be discussed below. According to Chapple, Johnson & Whitbeck (2004), youths who have problems that are related to academic achievement, police contact, peer involvement shows high levels of juvenile run away. Most of the homes whereby juveniles run away are associated with limited supervision, limited help in schoolwork, limited opportunity to discuss personal problems and lack of emotional support in times of difficulties. Whenever there is limited support from family members, juveniles experience increased depression that leads to negative life that results to run away in search for a better environment to accommodate them. In some cases, families with high rates of runaway children are those whereby the parents are drug and alcohol addicts therefore they have less time to cater for the needs of their children (Sanna., Kimberly & Gregory, 2005). A high percentage of these families are those that give the children less social and economic support as they face the difficulties of growing up into adulth ood. Some parents and guardians are known to abuse their children excessively, leading to lots of discomfort and subsequently runway in search of freedom in the streets or elsewhere (Elizabeth, Andrienne, Gerald, Kathryn, Andrew, Jonathan & Cheryl, 2010). Continuous use of illegal drugs is also associated with the reason why the juveniles run away from their homes. Drug and alcohol abuse is strongly linked as one of the reasons why juveniles
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Introduction to the Special Section on Dramatic Play - Essay Example Dreams can occur in any of four stages of sleep. But the most memorable and flamboyant dreams occur in REM sleep or last stage of sleep. Sleep cycle reiterates itself about four to five times on average per night, but can be repeated as many as seven times. Therefore, one can imagine why people have different dreams during one night. But, mostly people only remember the dreams that happen during the time they are about to wake up. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember those dreams donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they never happened. Some people think that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t dream at all but in reality, they do but just donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember what they dreamt about (Porter, 1987). How did Freud use dreams to help people understand their behaviors? What evidence did he use to support the contention that dream analysis is a valid way of treating mental illnesses? Did the evidence he provide support his claims?Ã Psychotherapy is a way that the dream material is examined clinically. It is vital to realize that dream is never used by you itself. When you are telling someone about your dream, it is not possible to portray the images you supposed while you were sleeping. Putting dream into words is a flawed endeavor to explain what you witnessed. Freud advised that dreams may reproduce our unconscious and unrecognized desires and fears. He said that personÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams are interpretations of psychological well being. He suggested that the unconscious disturbances in the thoughts of people are depicted in dreams and mental health is enhanced by interpreting the dreams (Zimbardo, Johnson & McCann, 2009). The idea that Freud brought about dreams harvest little bolster within modern psychology. His overuse and use of the symbolization occurring within dreams, and the symbols was representative of sexual organs which bore little credence at that time and even lesser psychoanalysis that had that
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Religious reform in the Age of Enlightenment - Essay Example the religious reform in the Age of Enlightenment then becomes an interesting topic, considering the fact that religion is fundamentally based on faith and traditions, yet the Age of Enlightenment was introducing reason, thus creating a fundamental conflict that would see religion change. Thus, despite the fact that religion does not auger well with reason and rationality; with rationality conflicting the provisions of the religious doctrine most of the time, then it will be interesting to see how reason and faith played to transform religion during this period. Therefore, the conflict between faith in religion and reason becomes the major reason why this topic has been selected. Concepts that will be used in your analysis of the text Secularism: This concept will be used to represent the non-religious culture of faithless action that is not based on any doctrines of religion or any sacred scripture, but solely dependent on the human reason, desire, and freedoms (Shapin, 47). Alternative Religion: This concept will feature in the analysis of the text, to represent other different options that emerged during the age of enlightenment, to replace the tradition of blind faith with reason as well as the freedom to act against the traditional religion and sacred traditions and doctrines (Ingram, 36). Religious reform: This is a concept that will be applied to represent the actual process of transitioning from the traditional religious ways and customs to the new culture of secularism and rationality in faith doctrines.
Friday, September 6, 2019
Benefits of Pets Essay 1. Decreases stress In a 2002 study at State University of New York at Buffalo, researchers found that when conducting a stressful task, people experienced less stress when their pets were with them than when a spouse, family member or close friend was nearby. Promises Treatment Centers, which specializes in addiction, not only recommends its patients consider getting a pet, but even allows pets in its rehabilitation facilities, according to Dr. David Sack, CEO of Promises. Ã¢â¬Å"One of Promises core beliefs is that we need to remove obstacles that prevent people from getting help,Ã¢â¬ Sack says. Ã¢â¬Å"We are committed to making Promises a safe and reassuring homelike environment. And what could be more like home than to have your pet accompany you?Ã¢â¬ 2. Lowers blood pressure While some studies have found a stronger connection than others, having a pet has the potential to lower blood pressure, especially in hypertensive or high-risk patients, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ã¢â¬Å"If you have a dog around, your blood pressure is lower,Ã¢â¬ says Marty Becker, DVM, veterinary consultant for Good Morning America and author of the upcoming book, Your Dog: The OwnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Manual. Ã¢â¬Å"A lot of it goes back to reducing stress: You might lose your job, your house, your 401(k) Ã¢â¬â but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll never lose the unconditional love of your pet.Ã¢â¬ 3. Eases pain Believe it or not, pets can be the best medicine, especially when a person is dealing with chronic pain such as migraines or arthritis, says Becker. Ã¢â¬Å"Just like Valium, it reduces anxiety. The less anxiety, the less pain,Ã¢â¬ he says. Ã¢â¬Å"Some studies about acute pain actually found that adults who used pet therapy required 50 percent less pain medication than those who did not.Ã¢â¬ 4. Lowers cholesterol According to the CDC, another heart-healthy result of owning a pet is lower cholesterol. Ã¢â¬Å"They lower cholesterol by about five points,Ã¢â¬ says Becker. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t clear whether the petÃ¢â¬â¢s presence decreases cholesterol, or if those who maintain a healthier lifestyle are more often pet owners. However, it is known that male pet owners, in particular, have lower triglyceride and cholesterol levels than nonÃ¢â¬âpet owners. 5. Improves mood A lot of the health benefits of owning a pet may stem from the mental and emotional benefits. Ã¢â¬Å"People who have pets are less harried; thereÃ¢â¬â¢s more laughter in their life,Ã¢â¬ says Becker. Ã¢â¬Å"When you come home, itÃ¢â¬â¢s like youÃ¢â¬â¢re George Clooney. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a star.Ã¢â¬ This is a primary reason pets are used in various forms of therapy. Ã¢â¬Å"At Walter Reed Army Medical Center, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re using dogs to help soldiers dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder,Ã¢â¬ says Katy Nelson, DVM, associate emergency veterinarian at the VCA Alexandria Animal Hospital in Alexandria, Va. Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re finding the guys who have a pet are able to re-enter society a little bit easier. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re showing a decreased suicide rate, one of the biggest health threats [veterans] face. These guys who have a pet have someone theyÃ¢â¬â¢re responsible for, someone who cares about them. And they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to explain what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been through.Ã¢â¬ 6. Helps people socialize While it may seem a bit counterintuitive, owning a dog actually increases a personÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities to socialize, according to Michael Landa, CEO of natural pet food brand Nulo and founder of Los AngelesÃ¢â¬âbased dog-walking service The Pet Staff. Ã¢â¬Å"I take my dog for a two-mile walk every day, and I run into five to 10 people whom I stop and talk to,Ã¢â¬ he says. Christie Keith, the online and social media editor at PetConnection.com, agrees. A 1999 Canadian study found that pet owners were more socially engaged than nonÃ¢â¬âpet owners, she says. In addition, an Austrian study Ã¢â¬Å"found that pet ownership led to an increase in social contact, more socialization within neighborhoods [such as neighbors chatting as they walk their dogs], and even a greater perception to observers that the neighborhood seems friendly.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ 7. Prevents strokes Although dogs are often touted for their health benefits, cat owners can see gains, too. Felines are just as beneficial to your health as dogs. Ã¢â¬Å"If you have a cat, youÃ¢â¬â¢re 30 percent less likely to have a heart attack, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re 40 percent less likely to have a cardiovascular incident like a stroke,Ã¢â¬ Becker says. In addition, pets can aid in the recovery of a heart attack. Ã¢â¬Å"If you have a heart attack and you have a dog, you are eight times more likely to be alive a year later,Ã¢â¬ Becker says. 8. Monitors blood sugar levels for diabetics According to the American Diabetes AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s Diabetes Forecast magazine, a 1992 study found that one-third of the pets living with diabetics (mostly dogs, but other pets included cats, birds and rabbits) would change their behavior when their ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s blood sugar level dropped. Most likely a reaction to chemical changes in the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s body, the behavior noted in the study has resulted in organizations like Dogs4Diabetics, which trains dogs to be companions for patients at risk of unstable blood glucose levels. 9. Prevents allergies and improves immunity Becker says pets can dramatically improve immunity and prevent allergies. Ã¢â¬Å"A study found that children ages 5 to 7 from pet-owning households attend school three weeks more per year than those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have pets,Ã¢â¬ he says. He also says that the more pets you have earlier in life, the fewer allergies you will develop. Ã¢â¬Å"Kids who grow up on farms and around animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t have allergies,Ã¢â¬ he says. Ã¢â¬Å"That dander on that hair, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s natural immunotherapy.Ã¢â¬ But he notes that this effect is not reversible: Getting a pet as an adult will not minimize allergies, it only helps prevent certain allergies from developing in children. 10. Helps children develop Children who grow up in a household with pets benefit in myriad ways, especially in their emotional development. Ã¢â¬Å"When a child is attached to a dog or cat, they learn to express themselves in more ways and they learn to relate better,Ã¢â¬ says Landa, who brings children to animal shelters to deliver toys and food. Pets are also hugely beneficial to children suffering from autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For children with ADHD, taking care of a pet can encourage them to focus on responsibilities through a predictable routine. While the sensory experience of holding and petting an animal can be soothing for children with autism.
Thursday, September 5, 2019
Learning Organization Essay The evolution of Organizational Learning has started in 1938 when John Dewey, in his book Experience and Education, publicized the concept of experiential learning as an ongoing cycle of activity. But, how did this concept emerge? Or, what does it really mean for the businesses? In order to understand this, we have to analyze the problems and needs. The core idea behind learning organization is that organizations of all kinds will not survive, let alone thrive, if they do not acquire an ability to adapt continuously to an increasingly unpredictable future. Or in other words, in order to survive and succeed for businesses, it is essential to establish or build stronger relationships with customers, where there are rapidly changing, turbulent and/or highly competitive market. Through learning, organizations may be better equipped to meet the challenges caused by continuous environmental turbulence. In addition, where products and processes can rapidly be copied, according to Arie de Geus, head of strategic planning department of Royal/Dutch Shell, the only real source of competitive advantage is to stimulate learning by employees. This may allow these individuals to identify new ways of working more closely with customers, which in turn permits the organization to differentiate itself from competition. However, the style of learning has to reflect the operational needs of the organization. For instance, a manufacturer which has adopted a transactional marketing style would probably choose to operate in a relatively stable market, produce standard components and focus primarily on offering adequate quality goods at a competitive price. In such circumstances, assuming that the organizational systems are based around repetition of routine procedures, the firm would probably be well advised to focus upon creating a single-loop learning environment as the most appropriate way fur sustaining employee development aimed at organizational efficiency. 2 On the other hand, in market situations where firms face periods of significant, discontinuous change and/or there is a desire to differentiateÃ the firm from competition through the adoption of a relationship marketing style, then possibly an incremental, more adaptive learning style, which is called double-loop learning may be more appropriate, so to involve the exploitation of new knowledge to evolve new practices, perspectives and operational frameworks. Figure 1: Single- vs. double-loop learning. II. DEFINITION OF LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS Keeping in mind what we have so far discussed, now let us check some definitions of the Learning Organizations. Peter M. Senge, who is also named as the father of this concept, describes learning organizations as organizations where people can continuously expand their capacity to create results which they truly desire. In such organizations, new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, and collective aspiration is set free. Individuals learn to learn together. He declares Deep down, we are all learners. It is not only our nature to learn, but we love to learn. Chris Argyris and Donald Schon defined the concept of learning organizations through the help of the definition of organizational learning: where the process of detection and correction of errors rules. 3 Moreover, how de Geus defined learning organizations is very remarkable: Forget your tired old ideas about leadership. The most successful corporation of the 1990s will be something called a learning organization? The ability to learn faster than your competitors, may be the only sustainable competitive advantage. One last definition might be the one of Kim, D., a learning organization is one that consciously manages its learning process through an inquiry-driven orientation among all its members. III. FIVE DISCIPLINES OF SENGE I have already mentioned that Senge was called as the father of the concept of Learning Organizations. When he first published his book The Fifth Discipline: The Art Practice of The Learning Organization in 1990, he caught a significant attention from academics and the business world. Peter M. Senge (1947- ) was named a ? Strategist of the Century by the Journal of Business Strategy, one of 24 men and women who have ? had the greatest impact on the way we conduct business today. Moreover, Senge has founded the Center for Organizational Learning at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1991 while he is also the founding chairperson of the Society for Organizational Learning (SoL) and a senior lecturer at MIT. Being maybe the most important, namely the person having the most influence in Learning Organizations I will study his so called five disciplines in my project. 4 3. 1 PERSONAL MASTERY 3. 1. 1 Introduction to Personal MasteryÃ Senge says, Organizations learn only through individuals who learn. Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs. The people are the main active force in every aspect of the business. Since, people have their own will and mind, and their own way of thinking; it is essential that they be sufficiently motivated to challenge the goals of growth and complexity. In todays practices, the manager should not be willing to dominate controlling, planning and organizing the workers activities. Instead they should be enabling the people in the business have their own enriching lives through establishing and maintaining the conditions needed. One should be living his own life from a creative viewpoint, so as to turn the life into a creative work. Personal Mastery is the phrase Senge and his colleagues use for the discipline of personal growth and learning. People with high levels of personal mastery are continually expanding their ability to create the results in life they truly seek. From their quest for continual learning comes the spirit of the learning organization. 3. 1. 1. 1 Mastery and Proficiency. There are two main underlying movements when personal mastery becomes a discipline, one of which is always continually making clear what is important for oneself, whereas the other movement is to continually learn how to see the current reality more clearly. It is vital to know where you are now in moving toward a desired destination. People with a high level of personal mastery share several basic characteristics, one of which is that they have a special sense of purpose that lies behind their visions and goals. 5 For such a person, a vision is an aspiration rather than simply a good idea. One other characteristic is that they live in a continual learning mode, where they never arrive. They know that personal mastery is not something one possesses, but is a process, a lifelong discipline. Those with a high level of personal mastery are acutely aware of their ignorance, their incompetence; and they know, or better to say truly believe that the journey itself is the reward. 3. 1. 1. 2 Why We Want It We want it because people with high levels of personal mastery are more committed, take more initiative, have a broader and deeper sense of responsibility in their work, and learn faster. Kazou Inamori, founder and chairman emeritus of Kyocera Corporation and president of the Inamori Foundation, who holds a bachelor of sciences in applied chemistry, says that Our employees agreed to live in a community in which they would not exploit each other, but rather help each other so that we may each live our life fully. 3. 1. 1. 3 Resistance One of the issues against the personal mastery is the resistance, which in turn is a valid fear for companies in which the managers couldnt build a shared vision along with shared mental models. It is useless to have personal mastery as solely without other disciplines of the organizational learning. Thats why we always have to keep in mind that personal mastery must go together with a shared vision and the other disciplines. 6 3. 1. 2 The Discipline of Personal Mastery 3. 1. 2. 1 Personal Vision Most adults have goals and objectives, but these are not visions. Thus, we can say that most have little sense of real vision. When asked what they want, many adults will say what they want to get rid of, as if they delineate themselves as given-ups, rather than grown-ups. Senge points that The ability to focus on ultimate intrinsic desires, not only on secondary goals, is a cornerstone of personal mastery. Vision is different from purpose, since purpose is similar to a direction, a general heading, whereas vision is a specific destination, a picture of a desired future. Vision is the image of your desired future. It shouldnt be confused with competition; it shouldnt be isolated from the idea of ones purpose. It is something which has personal aspects along with material aspects, such as where we want to live and how much of savings we want, or issues like health or freedom contribute, relatively. 3. 1. 2. 2 Holding Creative Tension One testimony of Senge says that there is something called the creative tension which is the source of energy derived from the gap between ones vision and where it stands in reality. This gap can push someone forward to get closer to the vision; however it might also discourage some other people, so as to leading to feelings and emotions associated with anxiety. Imagine a rubber band, stretched between your vision and the current reality. When stretched, the rubber band creates tension, representing the tension between vision and current reality. What does tension seek? Resolution or release. There 7 are two possible ways for the tension to resolve itself: pull reality toward the vision or pull the vision toward reality. Which occurs will depend on whether we hold steady to the vision. Figure 3: Creative Tension Negative emotions caused by anxiety of the creative tension, shouldnt be realized as the creative tension itself. What Senge argues, is that after some time what we call emotional tension will arise due to the negative emotions. In such cases, we feel deeply discouraged about a vision that is not happening and tend to lower the vision as an immediate so called remedy. It is clear that escaping emotional tension is easy; but what we really pay against is giving up something what we profoundly want, our vision. In the context of organizations we can say that goals are slowly lowered because of low tolerance for emotional tension. What we have to do is to understand thoroughly what the creative tension is and allow it to operate without lowering our vision; only then the vision becomes an active force in personal mastery. The gap in between should be used to generate energy for change. 8 Mastery of creative tension transforms the way we judge failure. It is simply an opportunity for learning. 3. 1. 2. 3 Structural Conflict: The Power of your Powerlessness A research done by Robert Fritz has shown that practically all of us have a dominant belief that we are not able to fulfill our desires. This in turn, is an obstacle one should get rid off. These beliefs, which are mandatory as a child to survive, were taught us so that we learnt our limitations. Most of us hold one of two contradictory beliefs that intrinsically limit our ability to create what so called we really want. The more common belief is in our powerlessness, namely our inability to bring into being all the things we really care about, whereas the other belief focuses on unworthiness, that we do not deserve to have what we truly desire. Fritz uses a metaphor to describe how contradictory underlying beliefs work as a system, which he calls the structural conflict, the metaphor counter to achieving our goals, through symbolizing the concept by another rubber band example. Figure 4: Effect of structural conflict to the creative tension. Later on, he identifies three generic so called strategies to cope with the forces of structural conflict, each of which has its own limitations. Accordingly, one is letting 9 our vision to erode. This strategy will lead to the sacrifice of what we truly want as discussed earlier. The second strategy is to conflict manipulation which is actually the strategy of people who mostly worry about failure. What they do is to focus on avoiding what they do not want to happen. This strategy makes one to spend his/her life in worry and fear. For those following this strategy, which is also called the negative vision, there is little joy in their life, even when they achieve their goals because this time they immediately tend to begin worrying about losing what they have gained. The last and most favorable strategy is defined as the willpower, where we simply psyche ourselves up to overpower all forms of resistance to achieving our goals. Simply saying, motivating through heightened will. In the next section, we will discuss Senges strategy for dealing with structural conflict: telling the truth. 3. 1. 2. 4 Commitment to the Truth People often want a technique that they can apply to solve the problem of structural conflict. But, in fact, being committed to the truth is far more powerful than any technique. So, what does it actually mean? It means a relentless willingness to root out the ways we limit or deceive ourselves from seeing what is, and to continually challenge our theories of why things are the way they are. The first critical task in dealing with structural conflicts is to recognize them, and the resulting behavior, when they are operating. This helps us to develop so called internal 10Ã warning signals, such as when we find ourselves blaming something or someone for our problems. What Senge suggests in this context is that we have to work on developing skills to discuss such situations with the people involved without producing defensiveness. We shouldnt always act in a manner where we always think of what others have done in the situation, rather we have to concentrate on what we can do. This in other words, relates to the fact that we have to understand, or better to say, realize the situation, the current reality in which we are, so to use this as a generative force. This has even been concluded in religions like Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jewish, Buddhism. One example might be the statement of The truth shall set you free. 3. 1. 2. 5 Using the Subconscious One of the most fascinating aspects of people with high levels of personal mastery is their ability to accomplish extraordinarily complex tasks with grace and ease. But, how does this come to happen? It is through the subconscious that all of us deal with complexity. What distinguishes people with high levels of personal mastery is they have developed a higher level of understanding between their normal awareness and their subconscious. Even the daily activities of us like walking, talking, eating or putting on your shoes are enormously complex tasks, for which we have learned the required skills of the tasks, which in turn led that the whole activity gradually shifts from conscious attention to subconscious control. People with high levels of personal mastery focus on the desired result itself, not the process or the means they assume necessary to achieve that result. This allows the person in focusing on the artistry of the result as well. 11 In other words, we can say that we must work at learning how to differentiate what we truly want, from what we think we need to do in order to achieve it. In order to develop a subconscious understanding it is also important to commit to the truth, because when not telling the truth, most people create some level of internal stress. The principle of creative tension recognizes that the subconscious operates most effectively when it is focused clearly on our vision and our current reality. One effective way to focus the subconscious is through imagery and visualization. For instance, world-class swimmers have found that by imagining their hands to be twice their actual size and their feet to be webbed, they actually swim faster. Mental practicing of complex tasks has become a routine psychological training for professional performers from different areas of interest. A strict reliance on only conscious learning could never have achieved this level of artistry, even if there was all the willpower in the world present. Contradictorily, it had to depend on a high level of subconscious understanding. 3. 2 MENTAL MODELS 3. 2. 1 Introduction to Mental ModelsÃ Mental models can be described as the views and assumptions we hold in our minds about how things are and how things work. A mental model is like ones way of looking at whats happening in the world. In other words, it determines how we think and act. Mental models depend on the past experiences, and the perception as a result of those experiences, and observations. In the introduction I had introduced the experiential learning, which was the style of learning through past experience and some other elements 12 like concrete experience, observation and reflection, and forming abstract concepts. Accordingly, a child without knowing that it might cut his hand might take a knife in his hand and try to push it in his hand. This in fact, will hurt him a lot. However, grown ups already know how to deal with a knife, so they wont do the same mistake as the child does. All the experiences learnt are added up so to form or build up the mental models. 3. 2. 1. 1 Why the Best Ideas Fail? From the business point of view, one thing which is known by all managers is that many of the best ideas never get put into practice. Even brilliant strategies fail to get translated into action. New insights fail to get put into practice because they conflict with deeply held internal images of how the world works, images that limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting. That is why the discipline of managing mental models ? surfacing, testing, and improving our internal pictures of how the world works- promises to be a major breakthrough for building learning organizations. Our mental models determine not only how we make sense of the world, but how we take action, namely they shape how we act which puts them into an active sense. But, why are mental models so powerful in affecting what we do? In part, because they affect what we see. As psychologists say, human beings observe selectively. Mental models also exist in the organizations, and also in management. Mental models could cause big losses in the business world as it can also prevent us from seeing the current situation. Loosing Americas car market share to German and Japanese countries was a result of the mental models of the management, where they are prevented to see the situation because of their models in mind, and perceptions. 13 The problems with mental models lie not in whether they are right or wrong-by definition, all models are simplifications. The problems with mental models arise when the models are tacit-when they exist below the level of awareness. 3. 2. 1. 2. Overcoming The Basic Diseases of the Hierarchy In the traditional authoritarian organization, the dogma was managing, organizing, and controlling, whereas in the learning organization, the new dogma will be vision, values, and mental models. In addition, in traditional organizations, merit means doing what the boss wants, openness means telling the boss what he wants to hear, and localness means doing the dirty stuff that the boss doesnt want to do. However, in learning organizations these concepts will get new understandings. 3. 2. 2. The Discipline of Mental Models Developing an organizations capacity to work with mental models involves both learning new skills and implementing institutional innovations that help bring these skills into regular practice. 3. 2. 2. 1 Managing Mental Models Throughout An Organization A concept of scenarios should be adapted in pursuit of mental models, so to force managers to consider how they would manage under different alternative paths into the future. This offsets the tendency for managers to implicitly assume a single future. When groups of managers share a range of alternative futures in their mental models, they become more responsive to those changes. 14 Mental modeling should be implemented as a philosophy. It is important to note that the goal in mental modeling is not agreement or congruency. Many mental models can exist at once. What is important is that we have to consider all of them and test against situations that we confront. Only after the process works it leads to congruency. 3. 2. 2. 2 Managing Mental Models At Personal and Interpersonal Levels The learning skills of action science practitioners such as Chris Argyris fall into two broad classes: skills of reflection and skills of inquiry. Where skills of reflection concern slowing down our own thinking process so that we can become more aware of how we form our mental models and the ways they influence our actions, inquiry skills concern how we operate in face-to-face interactions with others, especially in dealing with complex and conflictual issues. Reflection skills start with recognizing leaps of abstraction, which mean that our minds move at lightning speeds. Ironically, this often slows our learning, because we immediately leap to generalizations so quickly that we never think to test them. Namely, leaps of abstraction occur when we move from direct observations to generalization without testing. Here it is important to distinguish direct observation from generalizations inferred from the observation itself. To distinguish it, explicitly separate it from the data which led to it. A second technique from action science is the left-hand column, which in turn is a powerful tool for beginning to see how our mental models operate in particular situations. It reveals ways that we manipulate situations to avoid dealing with how we actually think and feel, and thereby prevent a counterproductive situation from improving. The most important lesson that comes from seeing our left-hand columns is how we undermine opportunities for learning in conflictual situations. Here, a process called balancing inquiry and advocacy comes into action. 15 Managers are mostly trained to be advocates. In many companies, being a competent manager means, being able to solve problems, figuring out what needs to be done, and enlisting whatever support is needed to get it done. In such organizations, employees are rewarded according to their ability to debate forcefully, and influence others, where the inquiry skills are unrecognized. Those rewards unfortunately can bring the employees to managerial positions, where they suddenly face the fact that they do not learn while they should learn. Advocacy without inquiry between two people can end up in vicious circle. The more vehemently one argues, the more it creates a threat to the others position, so that the latter argues vehemently, which causes a threat to the first ones position, therefore, the first one argues even more vehemently. This reinforcing advocacy can be stopped by inquiring. Then it gives a chance for the both parts to understand each others conflicts, and reasoning. When in pure advocacy, people do not want to show the weak parts of their reasoning, and discard them. Definitely it does not bring any learning to us. Instead it brings polarization within the group. When operating in pure advocacy, the goal is to win the argument; however, when inquiry and advocacy are combined the goal is no longer to win the argument but to find the best argument out of all. This combination allows us to discover completely new views. What we have to keep in mind is that practicing inquiry and advocacy means being willing to expose the limitations in your own thinking, namely the willingness to be wrong. 16 3. 3 SHARED VISION 3. 3. 1 Introduction to Shared Vision 3. 3. 1. 1 A Common Caring A shared vision is not an idea, it is rather a force in peoples hearts, a force of impressive power. It may be inspired by an idea, but once it goes further ? if it is compelling enough to acquire support of more than one person? then it is no longer an abstraction. It is tangible. People begin to see it as if it exists. Few forces in human affairs are as powerful as shared visions. At its simplest level, a shared vision is the answer to the question, What do we want to create? Just as personal visions are pictures or images people carry in their heads and hearts, so too are shared visions pictures that people throughout an organization carry. When people truly share a vision they are connected, bound together by a common aspiration. Shared vision is one of the vital fundamentals of learning organizations, because it provides energy and also focus for learning. People should have something that really matters to them, something that makes them excited. A shared vision is not one dictated by that top management; it only exists when people are personally committed, since it is their personal vision. 3. 3. 1. 2 Why Shared Visions Matter? In an organization, a shared vision changes peoples relationship with the company. What they so far called as their company, becomes our company. It helps to create a common identity. Only this way, a learning organization can really succeed. You cannot have a learning organization without shared vision. 17 How can a commitment to the long term be fostered is the key question in efforts to develop systems thinking in management. People do not focus on the long term because they have to, but only because they want to. 3. 3. 2 The Discipline of Building Shared Vision Shared visions emerge from personal visions. This is how they derive their energy and how they foster commitment. The management should encourage individuals so as to let them create their own visions, as was told earlier in this project. However, these visions are not the shared vision itself. This is needed so that it will be easier for the individuals to accept visions of others and work in the same manner. In this way, the synergy which will be established is needed for the organization indeed. The shared vision shouldnt be written and taught to employees because this will establish a fear. Instead, everyone should adopt this vision and commit itself to the whole vision of the organization. 3. 3. 2. 1 From Personal Visions to Shared Visions To make it clearer, lets imagine a picture of a landscape. When you cut this picture into smaller parts, you will not be able to see the whole sight. However, if you have a picture of an ocean in which all the organisms, like fish, plants, etc. live, and you cut it into pieces, you will still be able to see the whole sight because the vision of the ocean is the same in that part. Its like the shared vision. When you take the shared vision person by person into consideration youll see that they match each other and reflect the whole image. 18 So, it is the fact that when more people come to share a common vision, the vision may not change fundamentally. But it becomes more alive, more real in the sense of a mental reality that people can truly imagine achieving. Writing a vision statement, which is often a one-shot vision, can be a first step in building shared vision but, alone, it rarely makes a vision come alive within an organization. Another problem with the so called one-shot vision that was prepared by the top management is that the resulting vision does not build on peoples personal visions. Contrarily, it only reflects the personal vision of one or two people at the top. The last problem might be explained in the manner as the vision is not a solution to a problem. Building a shared vision must be seen as a central element of the daily work of leaders. It is ongoing and never-ending. It is not truly a shared vision until it connects with the personal visions of people throughout the organization. Moreover, visions that are truly shared take time to emerge. They grow as a by-product of interactions of individual visions. Experience suggests that visions that are genuinely shared require ongoing conversation where individuals not only feel free to express their dreams, but also learn how to listen to each others dreams. 3. 3. 2. 2 Spreading Visions: Enrollment, Commitment, and Compliance There is a big difference between compliance and commitment. The committed person brings energy, passion and excitement, which in turn brings the synergy; he does not play by the rules of the game, instead feels responsible for the game, and will not hesitate to change the rules of the game if they stand in the way of achieving vision. On the other hand compliant followers only accept the vision, but do not have a personal desire. They may want it in order to keep their job, or to get a promotion etc. , but they know that its not their vision at all. For an organization to survive, it must ensure that a shared vision with the commitment of the individuals is established. 19 However, there are the types of genuine compliant followers, which may often be mistaken for enrollment or commitment. What then is the difference between being genuinely compliant and enrolled and committed? The answer is deceptively simple. People who are enrolled or committed truly want the vision, where genuinely compliant people accept the vision. They may want it in order to keep their job, or to get a promotion etc. , but they know that its not their vision at all. 3. 4 TEAM LEARNING 3. 4. 1 Introduction to Team Learning 3. 4. 1. 1 The Potential Wisdom Teams In order to understand team learning, it is important to understand what teams are. The word team can be traced back to the Indo-European word deuk (to pull); it has always included a meaning of pulling together. (The modern sense of team, a group of people acting together, emerged in the sixteenth century) We define teams as any group of people who need each other to accomplish a result. This definition is derived from a statement made by former Royal Dutch/Shell Group Planning coordinator, Arie de Geus: The only relevant learning in a company is the learning done by those people who have the power to take action. Team learning is a process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the results its members truly desire. It builds on the discipline of developing shared vision. It also builds on developing personal mastery, for talented teams are made up of talented individuals. But shared vision and talent are not enough. The world is full of teams of talented individuals who share a vision for a while, yet fail to learn. 20 Here we can discuss the terms unaligned and aligned teams. The fundamental characteristic of the relatively unaligned team is wasted energy. Individuals may work extraordinarily hard, but their efforts do not efficiently translate to team effort. By contrast, when a team becomes more aligned, a commonality of direction emerges, and individuals energies harmonize. There is less wasted energy. In fact, a resonance or synergy develops, like the coherent light of a laser rather than the incoherent and scattered light of a light bulb. There is commonality of purpose, a shared vision, and understanding of how to complement one anothers efforts. Individuals do not sacrifice their personal interests to the larger team vision; rather, the shared vision becomes an extension of their personal visions. In fact, alignment is the necessary condition before empowering the individual will empower the whole team. Team learning is possible in every area, sports, business, performing arts, science, etc. It can even have extra ordinary results where the teams can be coordinated and even intelligence of the team can exceed the intelligence of its members totaling. In such an environment, team members can also show a rapid growth, than they could gain individually, namely constructing the synergy. With the changes in the organizations, team learning has never been that important. No matter if its a product development team, management team or cross-functional task forces. As they are teams, they are the people who need one another to act. The three critical dimensions of Team Learning can be described as; 1. Insightful thinking is necessary for complex issues. Teams must learn to end up with one more intelligent solution when compared to each of the participants solutions. 2. Innovative and coordinated action is vital.