Saturday, May 23, 2020

Biography of Emily Dickinson, American Poet

Emily Dickinson (December 10, 1830–May 15, 1886) was an American poet best known for her eccentric personality and her frequent themes of death and mortality. Although she was a prolific writer, only a few of her poems were published during her lifetime. Despite being mostly unknown while she was alive, her poetry—nearly 1,800 poems altogether—has become a staple of the American literary canon, and scholars and readers alike have long held a fascination with her unusual life. Fast Facts: Emily Dickinson Full Name:  Emily Elizabeth DickinsonKnown For:  American poetBorn:  December 10, 1830 in Amherst, MassachusettsDied: May 15, 1886 in Amherst, MassachusettsParents:  Edward Dickinson and Emily Norcross DickinsonEducation:  Amherst Academy, Mount Holyoke Female SeminaryPublished Works: Poems (1890), Poems: Second Series (1891), Poems: Third Series (1896)Notable Quote:  If I read a book and it makes my whole body so cold no fire can ever warm me, I know that is poetry. Early Life Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born into a prominent family in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her father, Edward Dickinson, was a lawyer, a politician, and a trustee of Amherst College, of which his father, Samuel Dickinson, was a founder. He and his wife Emily (nee Norcross) had three children; Emily Dickinson was the second child and eldest daughter, and she had an older brother, William Austin (who generally went by his middle name), and a younger sister, Lavinia. By all accounts, Dickinson was a pleasant, well-behaved child who particularly loved music. Because Dickinson’s father was adamant that his children be well-educated, Dickinson received a more rigorous and more classical education than many other girls of her era. When she was ten, she and her sister began attending Amherst Academy, a former academy for boys that had just begun accepting female students two years earlier. Dickinson continued to excel at her studies, despite their rigorous and challenging nature, and studied literature, the sciences, history, philosophy, and Latin. Occasionally, she did have to take time off from school due to repeated illnesses. Portrait of (from left) Emily, Austin, and Lavinia Dickinson, circa 1840.   Culture Club / Getty Images Dickinson’s preoccupation with death began at this young age as well. At the age of fourteen, she suffered her first major loss when her friend and cousin Sophia Holland died of typhus. Holland’s death sent her into such a melancholy spiral that she was sent away to Boston to recover. Upon her recovery, she returned to Amherst, continuing her studies alongside some of the people who would be her lifelong friends, including her future sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert. After completing her education at Amherst Academy, Dickinson enrolled at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She spent less than a year there, but explanations for her early departure vary depending on the source: her family wanted her to return home, she disliked the intense, evangelical religious atmosphere, she was lonely, she didn’t like the teaching style. In any case, she returned home by the time she was 18 years old. Reading, Loss, and Love A family friend, a young attorney named Benjamin Franklin Newton, became a friend and mentor to Dickinson. It was most likely him who introduced her to the writings of William Wordsworth and Ralph Waldo Emerson, which later influenced and inspired her own poetry. Dickinson read extensively, helped by friends and family who brought her more books; among her most formative influences was the work of William Shakespeare, as well as Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. Dickinson was in good spirits in the early 1850s, but it did not last. Once again, people near to her died, and she was devastated. Her friend and mentor Newton died of tuberculosis, writing to Dickinson before he died to say he wished he could live to see her achieve greatness. Another friend, the Amherst Academy principal Leonard Humphrey, died suddenly at only 25 years old in 1850. Her letters and writings at the time are filled with the depth of her melancholy moods. Portrait of Emily Dickinson, circa 1850.   Three Lions / Getty Images During this time, Dickinson’s old friend Susan Gilbert was her closest confidante. Beginning in 1852, Gilbert was courted by Dickinson’s brother Austin, and they married in 1856, although it was a generally unhappy marriage. Gilbert was much closer to Dickinson, with whom she shared a passionate and intense correspondence and friendship. In the view of many contemporary scholars, the relationship between the two women was, very likely, a romantic one, and possibly the most important relationship of either of their lives. Aside from her personal role in Dickinson’s life, Gilbert also served as a quasi-editor and advisor to Dickinson during her writing career. Dickinson did not travel much outside of Amherst, slowly developing the later reputation for being reclusive and eccentric. She cared for her mother, who was essentially homebound with chronic illnesses from the 1850s onward. As she became more and more cut off from the outside world, however, Dickinson leaned more into her inner world and thus into her creative output. Conventional Poetry (1850s – 1861) I'm Nobody! Who are you? (1891) Im Nobody! Who are you?Are you — Nobody — too?Then theres a pair of us!Dont tell! theyd advertise — you know.How dreary — to be — Somebody!How public — like a Frog —To tell ones name — the livelong June —To an admiring Bog! It’s unclear when, exactly, Dickinson began writing her poems, though it can be assumed that she was writing for some time before any of them were ever revealed to the public or published. Thomas H. Johnson, who was behind the collection The Poems of Emily Dickinson, was able to definitely date only five of Dickinsons poems to the period before 1858. In that early period, her poetry was marked by an adherence to the conventions of the time. Two of her five earliest poems are actually satirical, done in the style of witty, â€Å"mock† valentine poems with deliberately flowery and overwrought language. Two more of them reflect the more melancholy tone she would be better known for. One of those is about her brother Austin and how much she missed him, while the other, known by its first line â€Å"I have a Bird in spring,† was written for Gilbert and was a lament about the grief of fearing the loss of friendship. A few of Dickinson’s poems were published in the Springfield Republican between 1858 and 1868; she was friends with its editor, journalist Samuel Bowles, and his wife Mary. All of those poems were published anonymously, and they were heavily edited, removing much of Dickinson’s signature stylization, syntax, and punctuation. The first poem published, Nobody knows this little rose,† may have actually been published without Dickinson’s permission. Another poem, â€Å"Safe in their Alabaster Chambers,† was retitled and published as â€Å"The Sleeping.† By 1858, Dickinson had begun organizing her poems, even as she wrote more of them. She reviewed and made fresh copies of her poetry, putting together manuscript books. Between 1858 and 1865, she produced 40 manuscripts, comprising just under 800 poems. During this time period, Dickinson also drafted a trio of letters which were later referred to as the â€Å"Master Letters.† They were never sent and were discovered as drafts among her papers. Addressed to an unknown man she only calls â€Å"Master,† they’re poetic in a strange way that has eluded understanding even by the most educated of scholars. They may not have even been intended for a real person at all; they remain one of the major mysteries of Dickinson’s life and writings. Prolific Poet (1861 – 1865) â€Å"Hope† is the thing with feathers (1891) Hope is the thing with feathersThat perches in the soulAnd sings the tune without the wordsAnd never stops at allAnd sweetest in the Gale is heardAnd sore must be the storm —That could abash the little BirdThat kept so many warm —Ive heard it in the chillest land —And on the strangest Sea —Yet, never, in Extremity,It asked a crumb — of Me. Dickinson’s early 30s were by far the most prolific writing period of her life. For the most part, she withdrew almost completely from society and from interactions with locals and neighbors (though she still wrote many letters), and at the same time, she began writing more and more. Her poems from this period were, eventually, the gold standard for her creative work. She developed her unique style of writing, with unusual and specific syntax, line breaks, and punctuation. It was during this time that the themes of mortality that she was best known for began to appear in her poems more often. While her earlier works had occasionally touched on themes of grief, fear, or loss, it wasn’t until this most prolific era that she fully leaned into the themes that would define her work and her legacy. Cover of an 1890 first edition of Poems. / Wikimedia Commons It is estimated that Dickinson wrote more than 700 poems between 1861 and 1865. She also corresponded with literary critic Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who became one of her close friends and lifelong correspondents. Dickinson’s writing from the time seemed to embrace a little bit of melodrama, alongside deeply felt and genuine sentiments and observations. Later work (1866 – 1870s) Because I could not stop for Death (1890) Because I could not stop for Death—He kindly stopped for me—The Carriage held but just Ourselves—And Immortality.We slowly drove—He knew no haste,And I had put awayMy labor and my leisure too,For His Civility—We passed the School, where Children stroveAt recess—in the ring—We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—We passed the Setting Sun—Or rather—He passed Us—The Dews drew quivering and chill—For only Gossamer, my Gown—My Tippet—only Tulle—We paused before a House that seemedA Swelling of the Ground—The Roof was scarcely visible—The Cornice—in the Ground—Since then—tis centuries— and yetFeels shorter than the DayI first surmised the Horses HeadsWere toward Eternity— By 1866, Dickinson’s productivity began tapering off. She had suffered personal losses, including that of her beloved dog Carlo, and her trusted household servant got married and left her household in 1866. Most estimates suggest that she wrote about one third of her body of work after 1866. Around 1867, Dickinson’s reclusive tendencies became more and more extreme. She began refusing to see visitors, only speaking to them from the other side of a door, and rarely went out in public. On the rare occasions she did leave the house, she always wore white, gaining notoriety as â€Å"the woman in white.† Despite this avoidance of physical socialization, Dickinson was a lively correspondent; around two-thirds of her surviving correspondence was written between 1866 and her death, 20 years later. Illustration of the Dickinson home in Amherst.   Culture Club / Getty Images Dickinson’s personal life during this time was complicated as well. She lost her father to a stroke in 1874, but she refused to come out of her self-imposed seclusion for his memorial or funeral services. She also may have briefly had a romantic correspondence with Otis Phillips Lord, a judge and a widower who was a longtime friend. Very little of their correspondence survives, but what does survive shows that they wrote to each other like clockwork, every Sunday, and their letters were full of literary references and quotations. Lord died in 1884, two years after Dickinson’s old mentor, Charles Wadsworth, had died after a long illness. Literary Style and Themes Even a cursory glance at Dickinson’s poetry reveals some of the hallmarks of her style. Dickinson embraced highly unconventional use of punctuation, capitalization, and line breaks, which she insisted were crucial to the meaning of the poems. When her early poems were edited for publication, she was seriously displeased, arguing the edits to the stylization had altered the whole meaning. Her use of meter is also somewhat unconventional, as she avoids the popular pentameter for tetrameter or trimeter, and even then is irregular in her use of meter within a poem. In other ways, however, her poems stuck to some conventions; she often used ballad stanza forms and ABCB rhyme schemes. The themes of Dickinson’s poetry vary widely. She’s perhaps most well known for her preoccupation with mortality and death, as exemplified in one of her most famous poems, â€Å"Because I did not stop for Death.† In some cases, this also stretched to her heavily Christian themes, with poems tied into the Christian Gospels and the life of Jesus Christ. Although her poems dealing with death are sometimes quite spiritual in nature, she also has a surprisingly colorful array of descriptions of death by various, sometimes violent means. On the other hand, Dickinson’s poetry often embraces humor and even satire and irony to make her point; she’s not the dreary figure she is often portrayed as because of her more morbid themes. Many of her poems use garden and floral imagery, reflecting her lifelong passion for meticulous gardening and often using the â€Å"language of flowers† to symbolize themes such as youth, prudence, or even poetry itself. The images of nature also occasionally showed up as living creatures, as in her famous poem â€Å"Hope is the thing with feathers.† Death Dickinson reportedly kept writing until nearly the end of her life, but her lack of energy showed through when she no longer edited or organized her poems. Her family life became more complicated as her brother’s marriage to her beloved Susan fell apart and Austin instead turned to a mistress, Mabel Loomis Todd, who Dickinson never met. Her mother died in 1882, and her favorite nephew in 1883. Through 1885, her health declined, and her family grew more concerned. Dickinson became extremely ill in May of 1886 and died on May 15, 1886. Her doctor declared the cause of death to be Bright’s disease, a disease of the kidneys. Susan Gilbert was asked to prepare her body for burial and to write her obituary, which she did with great care. Dickinson was buried in her family’s plot at West Cemetery in Amherst. Emily Dickinsons grave in her familys plot in Amherst. Midnightdreary / Wikimedia Commons   Legacy The great irony of Dickinson’s life is that she was largely unknown during her lifetime. In fact, she was probably better known as a talented gardener than as a poet. Fewer than a dozen of her poems were actually published for public consumption when she was alive. It wasn’t until after her death, when her sister Lavinia discovered her manuscripts of over 1,800 poems, that her work was published in bulk. Since that first publication, in 1890, Dickinson’s poetry has never been out of print. At first, the non-traditional style of her poetry led to her posthumous publications getting somewhat mixed receptions. At the time, her experimentation with style and form led to criticism over her skill and education, but decades later, those same qualities were praised as signifying her creativity and daring. In the 20th century, there was a resurgence of interest and scholarship in Dickinson, particularly with regards to studying her as a female poet, not separating her gender from her work as earlier critics and scholars had. While her eccentric nature and choice of a secluded life has occupied much of Dickinson’s image in popular culture, she is still regarded as a highly respected and highly influential American poet. Her work is consistently taught in high schools and colleges, is never out of print, and has served as the inspiration for countless artists, both in poetry and in other media. Feminist artists in particular have often found inspiration in Dickinson; both her life and her impressive body of work have provided inspiration to countless creative works. Sources Habegger, Alfred.  My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Random House, 2001.Johnson, Thomas H. (ed.).  The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown Co., 1960.Sewall, Richard B. The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1974.Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. Emily Dickinson. New York. Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Final Study Guide †Eco/372 Free Essays

ECO/372 Final Examination Study Guide This study guide prepares you for the Final Examination you complete in the last week of the course. It contains practice questions, which are related to each week’s objectives. Highlight the correct response, and then refer to the answer key at the end of this Study Guide to check your answers. We will write a custom essay sample on Final Study Guide – Eco/372 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Use each week’s questions as a self-test at the start of a new week to reflect on the previous week’s concepts. When you come across concepts that you are unfamiliar with, refer to the Student Guide for that particular week. Week One: Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Objective: Explain the economic interaction of resources among households, government, and businesses. 1. Which group has ultimate control over the U. S. economy? a. Business b. Households c. Multinationals d. Government 2. When a government intervenes in an economy in a way that influences the relationship between households and businesses, it is a. serving as an economic actor b. serving as an economic referee c. serving the public good d. reducing social welfare by interfering with the invisible hand Objective: Describe gross domestic product, inflation rate, unemployment rate, and interest rate. . Per capita real output would most likely increase if a. both real GDP and population increase b. both real GDP and population decrease c. real GDP increases and population decreases d. real GDP decreases and population increases 4. In 2006, U. S. real GDP increased by 3. 3 percent. Based on this information, we can infer that the U. S. experienced a. a recession in 2006 b. an expansion in 2006 c. a depression in 2006 d. a trough in 2006 Objective: Identify sources of historical economic data and economic forecasts. 5. The Bureau of Economic Analysis is responsible for which of the following? a. Setting interest rates b. Managing the money supply c. Calculating U. S. gross domestic product d. Paying unemployment benefits. 6. The Federal Reserve will most likely _______ the money supply when the economy is experiencing a recession a. increase b. decrease c. stabilize d. manage Week Two: Aggregate Demand and Supply Models Objective: Analyze the impact of various factors on aggregate demand and supply. 7. The AD curve a. will shift as much as the initial shift factor when the multiplier is greater than one b. will shift by more than initial shift factor when the multiplier is greater than one c. ill shift by less than the initial shift factor due to leakages d. could shift by more or less than the initial shift factor 8. Theparadox paradox of thrift occurs when a. an increase in saving raises output b. an increase in saving reduces output c. saving is unrelated to output d. a decrease in saving reduces output 9. Suppose output exceeds potential output and a contractionary fisca l policy is enacted. According to the AS/AD model, in the long run, this fiscal policy will produce   a. a lower output level and a lower price level than would otherwise have occurred b. lower price level than would otherwise have occurred c. a lower output level than would otherwise have occurred d. neither a lower price level nor a lower output level than would otherwise have occurred 10. According to the AS/AD model, an expansionary monetary policy a. increases interest rates, raises investment, and increases income b. decreases interest rates, raises investment, and increases income c. increases interest rates, reduces investment, and decreases income d. decreases interest rates, reduces investment, and decreases income Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of changes in fiscal policies using Keynesian and Classical models 11. According to Keynes, the economy could become stuck at a low income level if   a. declines in aggregate demand and aggregate supply reinforce one another b. declines in aggregate demand are not accompanied by declines in aggregate supply c. declines in aggregate supply are not accompanied by declines in aggregate demand d. aggregate demand and aggregate supply are independent of one another 12. The Classical economists argued that: a. market economy will not experience unemployment. b. if unemployment occurs, it will cure itself because wages and prices will fall. c. aggregate expenditures may be too low. d. if inflation occurs it will cure itself because prices, wages, and interest rates will rise. Week Three: Monetary Policy Objective: Assess the factors contributing to the establishment of general and specific rates of interest. 13. When the Federal Reserve targets a high er interest rate, this change in policy involves open market   a. purchases of government securities that reduced reserves b. urchases of government securities that increased reserves c. sales of government securities that reduced reserves d. sales of government securities that increased reserves 14. When the Federal Reserve sells bonds, the a. Federal funds rate increases b. reserve requirement falls c. discount rate increases d. discount rate decreases Objective: Explain the role of the Federal Reserve System in designing and implementing U. S. monetary policies. 15. Who buys and sells in the Federal Reserve funds market? a. Commercial banks and depository institutions b. Large financial institutions c. Financial institutions and large corporations d. Anyone with a computer and an Internet connection can participate 16. The Federal fund rate is always _______ compared to the discount a. higher b. lower c. equal d. comparable Objective: Analyze how the money multiplier effect facilitates the creation of money. 17. If the multiplier effect is 4, a $15 billion increase in government expenditures will shift the AD curve   a. to the right by $15 billion b. to the left by $15 billion c. to the right by $60 billion d. to the left by $60 billion 18. Suppose the money multiplier in the U. S. s 4. If the Federal Reserve wants to expand the money supply by 600 it should:   a. buy government securities worth 150. b. buy government securities worth 600. c. sell government securities worth 150. d. sell government securities worth 600. Week Four: Fiscal Policy: Politics, Deficits, and Debt Objective: Analyze the influence of deficit, surplus, and debt on the health of the U. S. macroeconomy. 1 9. When the government runs a deficit, it will a. buy bonds to finance the deficit b. sell bonds to finance the deficit c. reduce the money supply to finance the deficit d. raise taxes immediately 0. Deficits may be desirable in the short run if they a. help to stabilize the economy when the economy falls below potential output b. increase savings necessary for future investment and growth c. increase savings necessary for future consumption and demand d. help to stabilize the economy when the economy is above potential output 21. The structural deficit a. rises as the economy expands and falls when it contracts b. falls as the economy expands and rises when it contracts c. changes as actual income changes regardless of potential income d. oes not change when income changes, but changes only when potential income changes 22. Government debt is defined as a. a shortfall of incoming revenue under outgoing payment b. a shortfall of outgoing payments under incoming revenue c. accumulate d deficits minus accumulated surpluses d. accumulated deficits plus accumulated surpluses Week Five: International Trade and Finance Objective: Analyze the effects of international trade on the U. S. macroeconomy. 23. According to comparative advantage, specialization means that a country is producing the goods   a. that it wants to consume b. or which it has a relatively high opportunity cost c. for which it has a relatively low opportunity cost d. that it can produce at zero cost 24. Globalization represents a. a return to isolationism b. the opposite of isolationism c. the economic complement of political isolationism d. the political complement of economic isolationism 25. If the U. S. wants to strengthen the value of the dollar, it should use a. contractionary fiscal policy b. expansionary fiscal policy c. contractionary monetary policy d. expansionary monetary policy 26. Which of the following would most likely cause an increase in the upply of dollars? a. An expansionary fi scal policy that raised U. S. income and increased U. S. imports b. An expansionary fiscal policy that raised U. S. income and reduced U. S. imports c. A contractionary fiscal policy that reduced U. S. income and lowered U. S. imports d. A contractionary fiscal policy that reduced U. S. income and increased U. S. imports Objective: Explain how foreign exchange rates are determined. 27. Suppose a basket of goods costs 60,000 pesos in Mexico. If, at the existing exchange rate, it costs less than 60,000 pesos to buy the same basket of goods in the U. S. , then purchasing power parity implies that the a. dollar is overvalue b. peso is undervalue c. dollar should cost fewer pesos d. dollar should cost more pesos 28. If a basket of goods costs $10 in the U. S. and 100,000 rubles in Russia, then purchasing power parity will exist if the exchange rate between the ruble and the dollar is   a. 1,000 rubles per dollar b. 10,000 rubles per dollar c. 0. 01 dollars per ruble d. 0. 1 dollars per ruble Objective: Analyze the impact of trade restrictions, tariffs, and quotas on the U. S. macroeconomy. 29. A quota differs from a tariff in that quotas a. imit the volume of imports more than tariffs b. do not increase the price of imports as much as tariffs c. do not generate tax revenues, unlike tariffs d. reduce consumer welfare more than tariffs 30. Threats to put tariffs on a nation in an attempt to get that nation to reduce its restrictions on trade are called: a. strategic trade policies b. trade adjustment assistance programs c. learning by doing d. inertia and cachet Answer Key 1. b 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. b 13. c 14. a 15. a 16. b 17. c 18. a 19. b 20. a 21. d 22. c 23. c 24. b 25. c 26. a 27. d 28. b 29. c 30. a How to cite Final Study Guide – Eco/372, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Emerging Technologies and Innovation ICT Controversies

Question: Discuss about theEmerging Technologies and Innovationfor ICT Controversies. Answer: Introduction The purpose of this study is to evaluate two ICT controversies in order to investigate the ethical dilemmas of the cases. The term ICT stands for Information and Communication Technologies. Nowadays, technology in improving rapidly and therefore, scientists are paying close attention to the prevention of related constraints. In this study, two ICT controversies have been chosen such as Where has all the data gone? Service providers capturing metadata and Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat to Humanity. These articles emphasize that how technological improvement has diverse impact on moral values of human beings. Moreover, the analysis of these articles has shown the fairness and justice while conducting decision-making. This study focuses on the alternative way that could help to overcome the constraint of the potential issues. Issues of Justice and Fairness The first controversy is about the telecommunication service providers are not capturing and retaining the metadata. However, according to the law enforcement, service providers should record and retain those data for at least two years. It helps the security agencies to gather raw data before starting a specific investigation (Ekbia et al., 2015). According to the legal facts, these security agencies are free to hack information of the users without any restriction. Therefore, it is difficult for the users to maintain privacy while using the services (Ghezzi, Cortimiglia Frank, 2015). According to the telecommunications Act 1979, service providers should protect information of the users. However, the process of storing and retaining Meta data for minimum two years is completely opposite of the data protection act as well. Now, the issue is, the overall process of recording and retaining Meta Data is affecting communication flow negatively. On the other hand, monitoring users inform ation helps to reduce change of crime in an efficient manner. The moral dilemma of this case is whether the decision of recording and retaining users information is good or bad for the society (Nathan 2015). In this article, some examples have been provided in order to elaborate the case. After reviewing this case, it has been noted that people may face diverse situation due to misinterpretation of data. Here, the security agencies are bound to follow their responsibilities and therefore it may create diverse situation for people. The second article is about the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on humanity. In this article, it has been emphasized that how AI can affect the humanity in different situation. Research shows that AI is not in developing stage ad scientists are afraid about the diverse impact of the emerging improvement of AI. Here, the issue is Artificial Intelligence cannot be able to understand the critical decision-making (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz Haksever, 2016). Moreover, the scientists have argued that artificial intelligence would not be able to distinguish between strategy and alternative implementation process. The article emphasizes on how improvement of AI can create difficulties for the humanity (Lorenc, 2015). For example, artificial intelligence in traffic control may cause accident or traffic congestion due to lack of common sense. Here, Musk has mentioned that improvement in AI is not against technological improve (Fast Horvitz, 2016). However, he has mentioned that scientists shou ld consider the prevention in order to develop AI carefully. When it comes to the fairness and justice to the viewpoint of scientists, it can be said that people should take proper cautions before implementing artificial intelligence. The Right Thing to do In order to overcome the constraints of both the cases, it is highly important to understand the significance in an appropriate manner. There are two controversies such as data handling issue of telecommunication companies and the threat of artificial intelligence. After reviewing the articles, it has been identified that both the articles have mentioned different issues regarding the cases. Following are the right things that would help to overcome the identified constraints identified in these articles. Recommendations for article 1: In the first article, the issues regarding data storing and retaining has been evaluated. On the other hand, the security agencies are using the stored information in order to reduce crime (Ward, 2015). However, the overall process has negative impact on privacy of people. Therefore, it is the sole responsibilities of the security agencies to evaluate the gathered information in order to overcome the constraints. Moreover, the telecommunication service providers should maintain ethical practices in order to ensure data privacy of the users (Mller, 2016). Recommendations for article 2: In this case, scientists should take proper prevention in order to reduce the threat of artificial intelligence. According to the article, the scientists are considering AI as threat to humanity. The scientists are assuming that improving this particular technology would create diverse situation for the entire humanity (Mller, 2016). The artificial drones would not be able to distinguish between the assign responsibility and human intelligence. Sharing the Findings In order to share the findings an Ethical Analysis Discussion Board has been formed containing four members. Here, the discussion on the findings has been provided In order to understand the ethical dilemmas. Following is the discussion of the board members regarding both the selected case studies. Board member 1: According to the first board member, both telecommunication service providers and security agencies should maintain ethical practice in order to deal with the situation. Moreover, the legal conflict with data protection act should be taken under consideration in order to overcome the issues. The security agencies should evaluate the information properly before taking any kind of charge against people. On the other hand, the first board member has stated that artificial intelligence would help the society to overcome many constraints. However, it might be a threat to humanity, because artificial intelligence would not be able to adopt human intelligence, which can be either ethical or unethical. Board member 2: The second board member has stated that improvement in data recording and retention would help to comply with the legal framework. However, it would violate certain legal enforcements, which would create conflicts. Moreover, it is not possible for the security agencies to distinguish between genuine and fraud cases. The investigation process should be strict and according to the policies. In case of artificial intelligence, the second board member has stated that huge improvement of this technology would hamper the humanity and human behavior as well. References Ekbia, H., Mattioli, M., Kouper, I., Arave, G., Ghazinejad, A., Bowman, T., ... Sugimoto, C. R. (2015). Big data, bigger dilemmas: A critical review.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,66(8), 1523-1545 Fast, E., Horvitz, E. (2016). Long-Term Trends in the Public Perception of Artificial Intelligence.arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.04904 Ghezzi, A., Cortimiglia, M. N., Frank, A. G. (2015). Strategy and business model design in dynamic telecommunications industries: A study on Italian mobile network operators.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,90, 346-354 Gurkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., Haksever, G. (2016). Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils.Computer Law Security Review Lorenc, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and the Ethics of Human Extinction.Journal of Consciousness Studies,22(9-10), 194-214 Mller, V. C. (Ed.). (2016).Risks of Artificial Intelligence. CRC Press Nathan, G. (2015). Innovation process and ethics in technology: an approach to ethical (responsible) innovation governance.Journal on Chain and Network Science,15(2), 119-134 Ward, B. (2015). Emerging Technology and Ethical Innovation: A Case Study Approach to Developing Entrepreneurial Decision Making.Journal of Ethics Entrepreneurship,5(2), 103

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

A Streetcar Named Desire - Scene Three Plot Summary

A Streetcar Named Desire - Scene Three Plot Summary The Poker Night Four men (Stanley Kowalski, Mitch, Steve, and Pablo) are playing poker while the ladies (Blanche and Stella) are having an evening out. Playwright Tennessee Williams describes the men as in the physical prime of their life; they drink whiskey and each of their shirts has its own bright, distinct color. Stanleys first line in this scene betrays his aggressiveness: STANLEY: Get yr ass off the table, Mitch. Nothing belongs on a poker table but cards, chips and whiskey. Mitch seems more sensitive than the other men. He considers leaving the poker game because he is concerned about his ailing mother. (An interesting point about Mitch: He is the only unmarried man in the group.) The Ladies Return Stella and Blanche arrive home at around 2:30 am. Intrigued by the gruff man and their poker playing, Blanche asks if she can kibitz (meaning that she wants to spectate and offer commentary and advice about their game). Stanley wont let her. And when his wife suggests that the men quit after one more hand, he roughly slaps her thigh. Steve and Pablo laugh at this. Again, Williams shows us that most men (at least in this play) are crude and hostile, and most women begrudgingly tolerate them. Mitch and Blanche Flirt Blanche briefly encounters Mitch, who is just emerging from the bathroom. She asks Stella if Mitch is a wolf, someone who will take advantage of her emotionally and sexually. Stella doesnt think that he would behave that way, and Blanche begins to wonder about Mitch as a romantic possibility. Mitch excuses himself from the poker table and shares a cigarette with Blanche. MITCH: I guess we strike you as being a pretty rough bunch. BLANCHE: Im very adaptable - to circumstances. She also talks about her career back in her hometown. She states, I have the misfortune of being an English instructor. (Personal note: Since I, too, am an English teacher, I find this line hysterical!) Blanche turns on the radio, hoping to dance with Mitch; however, Stanley (who has become increasingly enraged by Blanche and her distracting ways) throws the radio out the window. All Hell Breaks Loose After Stanley trashes the radio, fast-paced and violent action ensues: Stella calls Stanley a drunk - animal thing.Stanley beats Stella.Blanche screams My sister is going to have a baby!The men restrain Stanley and toss him in the shower.Blanche rushes Stella to the neighbors apartment. Within moments, Stanley, soaking wet and half-drunken. He suddenly realizes that Stella has left him. STELL-LAHHHHH!!!!! In this famous moment, Stanley stumbles out to the street. He begins to call for his wife. When she does not come down to him he begins to shout her name repeatedly. The stages directions indicate that he calls to her with heaven-splitting violence. Touched by her husbands desperate, animalistic need for her, Stella walks down to him. According to the stage directions, They come together with low, animal moans. He falls to his knees on the steps and presses his face to her belly. In many ways, this moment is the antithesis to the famed balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. Instead of Romeo (as stage tradition holds) climbing up to his love, Stella walks down to her man. Instead of a romantic lead spouting eloquent poetry, we have Stanley Kowalski yelling at the top of his lungs, repeating only one name, like an ill-tempered boy calling for his mother. After Stanley carries Stella into their home, Blanche meets Mitch once again. He tells her not to worry, that the pair truly cares about each other. Blanche marvels about the confusing nature of the world and thanks Mitch for his kindness.

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Inevitability of Animal Testing in Medicine Essay Example

The Inevitability of Animal Testing in Medicine Essay Example The Inevitability of Animal Testing in Medicine Essay The Inevitability of Animal Testing in Medicine Essay In 1960s, about 10,000 babies who have short and malfunctioned legs and arms were born, surprising the public and scientists. People were worried and anxious to know the reason for the tragedy and the way to avoid the birth of defect babies. After many researches, scientists found out that the disabled babies were born to the mother who had taken a medicine called Thalidomide, a drug people used to deal with pregnant reaction, and was later proved to have teratogenicity to many animals by animal test. Then, people realized that animal test must be done before the drug used in treatment to avoid such accident. After several decades, animal test is still inevitable because it helps improve the medical science and is irreplaceable in medical science. Some people disagree with animal test because they think animal is crucial and not fair to animals. However, they may not fully understand the meaning of the animal test and the irreplaceability of animal test in medical science. First of all, animal test is the most effective experimental method in medical science. Animal test is still the most reliable method because animals share many commons with human. For instance, the rats share about 90% of human genes and humans and chimpanzees are 99% genetically identical. So, most of the physiological reactions happened in human body and animal body are the same. Thus, the results of test animal are reliable in most cases. Moreover, the importance of animal test has been proved by the achievements obtained by using animal test. As we know, all kinds of new drugs need animal test to prove that they are non-toxic before they are used in treatment. By using animal test, more than 20 kinds of new drugs are introduced to the market every year in USA. If we don’t use animal test, volunteers would be the only way to test drugs. However, the number of volunteers is limited, because it is very difficult to convince people to join drug test since people’s lives can be endangered. Thus, the test would be restricted because of the limited number of volunteers. What’s more, testing animals have done much contribution to the development of physiology and pathology. By using testing animals, people have understood more about human body and improved the new technology in medicine. For example, people have established the theories of circulation and digestion system, found the factors contribute to cancer and improved the technology of organ transplantation by using animal test. It is hard to imagine how medical science would be like without animal test. Some people think that animal test can be fully replaced by other methods. However, the fact is that animal test is still irreplaceable in medical science today because that we have not fully understand our body. Although we have saved many animals by using substitution such as cells test, animal test cannot be fully replaced by a lump of cells or organ, because an animal’s body is much more complicated than cells. For example, the function of a drug is usually influenced by the circulation and digestion systems and many factors we have not fully understand. When chemical reactions happen between drugs and enzyme in the body, the components of drugs can be changed into other substances, making it more difficult to learn the effects of the drugs by the experiments outside the body. If we dispose animal test, the introduction of new drugs would be slow down, and with less certainty. Another thought is that animal test is the only choice in some cases. For instance, the transplantation of organs such as liver and kidney should be first tested on animal, so that the rules and methods of transplantation can be established and the surgery can be safe to human. Without animal test, the transplantation of organs can be very risky and the cost might be the lives of patients. So, the animal test is still inevitable in many cases in the recent future. Another thing is that it is more important to reduce human suffering than to prevent animal suffering. It is obvious that every individual or species has the instinct to protect itself or its own species. So, if we have to do the choice from the benefits of human and that of animal, the answer is clear. When new drugs and technology are needed, it is more humane for us to do animal test to accelerate the invention of the new drug instead of discuss the necessity of animal test. Some people may disagree because they think every species in the planet should share the equal rights to live. However, if they have ever eaten meat from animal, used insecticide to kill bugs, and taken antibiotic to deal with bacterium, it is ridiculous for them to argue about equality. If we forbid animal test because of the consideration of animal rights, we may feel regret after the tragedy like the story of Thalidomide happens again. Some people encourage more volunteers to take part in the test, however, they may not consider the danger that the volunteers may confront. Which is sadder, the death of animal or the death of volunteers? So, it may be cruel to use animal to test new drugs, but it will be crueler to use drug on human without doing animal test. However, it’s wrongful to use animal test arbitrarily, so, we need establish rigid disciplines to control animal test. That is to say, we should use animal test only when we really need it. More specific, the number of animals used in the test, the purpose of the test, the necessity and rationality of the test must be concerned before the animal test is done. For example, we should avoid the repetition of animal test, which means we should get enough information before we do the experiments. If the same or similar test has been done by others and the result has been proved, the animal test should not be repeated again. Another thing is that we should use the advanced knowledge in statistics and experiment to minimize the number of animals required in a certain test. Before the experiment, we need spend some time to work out a proper plan, choose appropriate test method, so we can find the best way to get the experiment result with the smallest number of animals. Lastly, we should minimize the pain of the testing animal. It is not difficult to do so. For example, during cultivation of the testing animal, we can keep the animals clean and convenient by improving the environment they live; during the processing of test, we should use anesthesia to release the pain of animals; after the test, euthanasia should be applied to reduce the suffering of animals. I was a medicine student in university, as I have seen, most of the experiments in school have been done follow the rules of reducing the pain of animals. To conclude, animal test is inevitable when the life of people is concerned. Although some substitution methods of animal test have been found, animal test is still a necessary step before drugs are used on human. What we should do is to minimize the suffering of testing animal and find more effective substation method rather than discuss the necessity of animal test. Animal test is not only a topic about animal rights or justice, in fact, it is a much complex issue related to the development of medicine science and people’s life. So, it should be restricted but not banned without enough consideration and perfect substitutions.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Ethics Analysis Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Ethics Analysis Paper - Essay Example But what makes this different from the AACC code of ethics is when it comes to the point when the given information has to be disclosed to people or a third party because of a life threat posed on the third person. While the ACA code of ethics concentrates more on the disease as a 'life threat,' The AACC is more on the 'life' itself as a general threat. It can be noticed that both have a different outlook on what is threatening and what is not. A threat or harm can be seen for example to a person who seemed to have a possibility of committing suicide. This is a problem or harm that relates to personal conflict which is obvious in the AACC code of ethics. In the case of ACA, it is disease that may be harmful to a third party or other people. This can be said or referred to as a slight difference of the two codes of ethics when it comes to confidentiality. But more or less, they do follow a path that leads to security of the client yet, still safe for people. One thing that can be noti ced to both is its being concentrated on following the jurisdictions of law that as a whole has power over them. While both of them gives clearly the limitations, AACC makes it stronger and safer for its part to mention that confidentiality cannot be a hundred percent sure after all. When it comes to relationship with the client, there are also severa... While the AACC is concerned more on the proper attitude based on the bible, the ACA is more sensitive in the practicability of the situation. When we say practicability, it refers to how it may affect the client. A brief example of this is in the case of sexual relationship which is forbidden by any means by the AACC code of ethics. In ACA, sexual relationship can be allowed, provided that there will be a certain period to be considered past the relationship with the client. The staggering wanting of the AACC to keep and live through the order of the bible is one of the most obvious goal of the said code of ethics. Another visible difference that can be seen from the two is that ACA conforms to legality and is more particular with proof, evidence and proper documentation like in the case of Potentially Beneficial relationships stated in its code. Having such concentration, it enables the counselor and the client to be liable of any wrongdoings and wrong decisions made. The case about counseling relationship or attitude towards counseling cannot really be synchronized. Like what was mentioned earlier, it is because of the different bases of the codes that count as a number one factor in determining the main focus for every code of ethics. Speaking of another concentration which is the conduct of research and or teaching the clients, both ACA and AACC are concerned of the particular information that the client should gain. This is done by conducting thorough research and study over a subject. It can be noticed that in this particular matter, AACC is concerned about or is more focused on having professionals, if not masters of a particular field. This means that what counts most is the name and degree of the teacher or researcher who is

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Biometrics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Biometrics - Assignment Example However the success of the method is still skeptical where network authentication is considered. Advantages There has been varied and large number of arguments in favor of adopting the biometric authentication for network access. Among them the most accepted argument is the uniqueness of biometric characteristics. This uniqueness of the biometric characteristic helps to make it an ideal candidate authenticating technology. There is no better way to authenticate an individual’s identity than verifying his inherent and unique attributes; at first his fingerprints. The use of fingerprints as system of identification can be traced back to the 1850s; evidence to this belief is the establishment of Scotland Yards Central Fingerprinting Bureau in 1901. Another view that supports the biometrics is that the principle of network security is least disputed. In this system, the individual cannot forget the password or transfer the password to somebody as it is a unique physical attribute. This may be the most driven argument that supports the biometric authentication technique. Again, the next argument in this phase is also regarding the security. It is not possible to duplicate a biometric feature of an individual during the data uploading stage or in the verification stage. In the traditional method of token system, the user ID and the password may be easily replicated, which is not possible at all in the biometric authenticating technology. These unique characteristics cannot be lost or stolen. Disadvantages In the same way, there are several arguments against the introduction of the particular technological advancement—biometric authentication technology. Though the cost for the implementation of the biometric technology is coming down, still it is too expensive. While implementing the system, it is not enough to acquire the hardware and the software, but they are to be linked with the current networking. The cost return ratio is very low in the technolog y even though it helps to reduce the administration overheads. Although many find biometric authentication systems to be very successful, they ignore the fact that the same authentication data can be misused in multiple applications. When the user inputs his biometric authentication data for his identity in a particular application, the same data can be used to authenticate that person in a different application. It is a threat to the person’s security over his properties. For an example, if a user authenticates himself with his biometric characteristics to get access to airlines, an unwanted person can gain access to the user’s bank account, car, etc with the same authentication data, which can be hacked from the network easily. Scientists say that these problems will be outsourced by the invention of further advanced systems. However, how far the technology goes, till there will be its disadvantages too. Besides, as Vaca (2007) points out, in the biometric authentica tion technology, first of all, the person who captures the raw biometric data must be trust worthy person, as they have the option of keeping the raw data with themselves. Ethical Issues The controversy of the technological advancement has put forward so many social and ethical impacts. The biometrical authentication systems raise many ethical issues regarding the concept of privacy. These issues are not the same

Monday, January 27, 2020

My Abandonment By Peter Rock

My Abandonment By Peter Rock In Peter Rocks My Abandonment a thirteen year old girl named Caroline lives with her father in Forest Park. Carolines father is not mentally stable but helps Caroline live a life that she will remember. Caroline and her father live in the woods all alone aloof from society. To avoid capture they hide underground and also in trees. One day a jogger noticed Caroline changing in the trees. If she had not done that and stayed incognito she would not be in the mess she is in now. The police brought Caroline and her father back to a detention center where they were interrogated. They are soon put to live on a farm. The question is what will they do next? The first thing I would like to touch upon is the fact that our narrator, Caroline, is not very trustworthy. As Caroline writes her book on her and her fathers experiences she says, I remember the conversations as best as I can.   If I make up words he says at least theyre close or taken from his notebook.   I stitch it together and I only add what I have to.   If I dont remember something I skip over it and leave it out,(222). This affected me a lot even though I knew a potential theme of this book was secrecy, something her and her father had a lot. Caroline left her dead father in a cave during a storm and went on with her life. How would you feel if the father was someone you know and love? Caroline at the beginning of the book disobeyed her father and took off her camouflage. Then she lied to him and told him she saw nothing. That put them both in danger but I was thinking if getting caught was what she wanted. Maybe Caroline Harris 2 wanted to see how living a civilized life was like and only acted as if she missed home to mess with the readers mind. When this book was over those questions still linger in my head but another one keeps popping up every time I hear the title. I wonder how Caroline is going to end up living like her father, all alone and potentially confused. This book was an amazing experience for me. I love unloving things but this book hid a lot of things from the reader. Importantly, we dont know if Carolines story is actually true and there are no lies. Peter Rock does a great job addressing most of the literary elements. One thing that really stood out for me was his outstanding job of, show dont tell. He barely told us directly what was going on but his detailed descriptions helped us uncover what he really wanted us as readers to know. His imagery was great and he also included a little foreshadowing which really drove the story. Many parts were very disturbing to read but those parts just shows what the other side of life may look like. The story ended very quickly as if the narrator was rushing to the end because she forgot or she didnt want to talk about it. Caroline ends up going to college and so far she is a lone wolf. She works part time at as a librarian. The ending was ok but I wish I knew what happened to her in the future. Carolines father is dead but she is now living life the way people expect humans to live. Only she knows if shes satisfied. At first I did not get what Randy, Carolines toy horse, symbolized. Towards the end Caroline found out that Randy was a Chinese acupuncture model. In movies I watched Chinese knick knacks like Randy symbolized things like luck or something. I came to a conclusion that it symbolized hope and perseverance, two important themes that come up. Caroline carried Randy with her at all times and he was rarely out of her site. Randy Harris 3 pushed Caroline to do things she wouldnt do if she lived a normal life. She went back for him and always wanted him near her, as comfort. This book has an amazing plot, ok ending, and some great imagery. Ultimately this book taught me that if I dont take chances I will be stuck with any problems I have, which would end up harming me in the future. Caroline took chances and even though she was home schooled by her father that was in the war she still hanged tough and made it through. I recommend this book to anyone because there is so much excitement on every page. There isnt any other book like this and I had a great time reading about Caroline and her father. (Word Count: 809)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Fred and Rose West

Fredrick Walter Stephen West and his wife, Rosemary (Rose) Letts, are well known throughout Europe and most parts of the world as two of the most gruesome and sadistic serial killers of the century. Though it is not clear how many people they had murdered, as well as their motive to do so, the evidence presented from the twelve discovered murders are sure to send a chill up your spine. Fred West was born September 29, 1941. He was the second of six children to be born into a family of poor farmers. West claimed that his father had incestuous relationships with his daughters, one of the many peculiar norms in this household along with bestiality. West’s mother, Daisy, also sexually abused him at the young age of twelve. Taking into consideration the start and upbringing of Fred West, you can take an understanding to why he met the fate that he did. At the age of fifteen, West left school; though he did not excel academically, he showed a great amount of interest for woodwork and artwork. In the year of 1956, West returned to what he knew and began to work on a farm. A few years after, he suffered from a fractured skull, along with other injuries, and was in a coma for eighty days; his family reported that after the accident he became prone to sudden fits of rage. At the age of 20, he was arrested for molesting a thirteen-year-old girl and although he evaded serving time for his crime, his family quickly disowned him after. In September 1962, twenty-one year old West rekindled his love with an old girlfriend named Catherine Costello, who at that time was better known as Rena from her time working as a prostitute. Even though Rena was already pregnant with another man’s baby, she and West married on November 17. During this time, West began working as an ice cream truck driver, and on November 4, 1965, he killed a four-year-old boy by hitting him with his van. Fearful of his safety, he and his wife Rena moved with their two kids and nanny, Isa McNeil. Eventually, Rena and Isa fled to Scotland to escape West and his sadistic sexual cravings. She left her children behind. During this period, West began to see another woman who soon after became pregnant. Around her eighth month of pregnancy, his second girlfriend disappeared and her remains were not found until June 1994; she disappeared in August of 1967. While still married to Rena, the then twenty seven year old West met his next wife Rosemary Letts on November 29, 1968, the day of her fifteenth birthday. Soon after she turned sixteen, she and west moved in together. On October 17, 1970, she gave birth to their first daughter Heather Anne. Soon after, Fred West was imprisoned for theft; it is believed that during this time Rosemary killed Charmaine, Fred’s stepdaughter from his first marriage. On January 29, 1972, Fred and Rose West married and on June 1 of that year, Rose gave birth to their second daughter Mae. During this time West encouraged his wife to work as a prostitute. Rose eventually had seven kids, three of which were of mixed race. For obvious reasons, the family moved into a more spacious house on 25 Cromwell Street. West turned the top floor into bedrooms and the first into â€Å"Rose’s room†, which was used for prostitution. This room had peepholes in it so West would be able to watch his wife performing with other men and on the outside of the door, there was a red light. This would let the children know that Rose was busy and that nobody should bother her. Like West, Rose came from a similar background where incest was allowed. In fact, Bill Letts, Rose’s father, would often visit their home to have sex with Rose, of course with the consent of her husband. In October 1972, they hired seventeen-year-old Caroline Roberts as the children’s nanny. On December 6, 1972, the West has invited her to their home, where they both raped her. Fred let her go only after she promised to be their nanny. In early 1973, the West’s took eight-year-old Anne Marie, Fred’s daughter from his first marriage, down to the cellar where they bound and gagged her before West raped her, and Rose watched. In 1979, Anne Marie became pregnant with her father’s baby, but the pregnancy was terminated. Unable to deal with her father’s abuse, she left home. Shortly after West, began abusing Heather who disappeared a few years later. West felt that his daughter needed to be â€Å"broken† into the life of prostitution and whom better he felt to do this job then himself. In May 1992, West filmed himself raping one of his daughter multiple times. From there the investigation escalated although the rape case fell because of the two core witnesses backing out. The remaining children were placed in foster care. During this time, various social workers interviewed the children. The disappearance of their daughter Heather became known during this process, but to her siblings her death was known merely as a joke her parents used to explain her disappearance. In reality, she suffered a brutal death by the hand of her own father, who not only strangled her, but also dismembered her body and buried her in the back yard. The following the arrest of Fredrick West police uncovered human bones in his backyard not only those of his daughter. He immediately confessed to what he had done though it took time for him to stick to his story he could no longer hide from the pain he had inflicted on others. During the tour West gave the cops of the cellar and all the other rooms where he committed these heinous crimes, he said that the spirits of the dead were calling to him and telling him they were better off not being found, he regretted his confession. Out of the twelve murdered souls only nine bodies were found in the house, including one in the bathroom, five in the cellar, and three in the garden; one of those was the body of their daughter Heather. West states that the murder of his daughter was simply â€Å"enjoyment turned to disaster†. He kept the secret of killing his daughter for eight years, not even Rose knew of this dark secret. Between 1967-1987 Fredrick West and his wife tortured, raped, and killed at least twelve young women and girls, mostly in their own home. Fred West was found guilty for 11 murders and Rose of 10, following the trial another body was found which increased Fred’s total count to 12. On January 1, 1995, Fred West was found dead in his cell; he committed suicide by hanging himself, he was cremated and only three people attended his funeral. Rosemary Letts, unlike her husband, never confessed. She was tried and found guilty of all 10 murders and was sentenced to life without parole. In October 1996, the West’s house which is now better known as the house of horrors, was demolished along with its adjoining properties and made into a pathway. Reference

Friday, January 10, 2020

Comparison of A Doll’s House and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay

Prompt #14: â€Å"Important characters in plays are multi-dimensional. Discuss to what extent this statement is true of important characters in plays you have studied and comment on the techniques of characterization employed by the playwright.† Multidimensional characters can also be defined as dynamic or constantly changing and developing characters. These dynamic characters are not simply important to a play, but are arguably the most important characters because what the playwright intends to communicate to his or her audience is communicated through the changing emotions and behaviors of these characters. Additionally, playwrights use a variety of techniques to highlight the changes an important character may go through. The dialogue, staging and stage directions, setting, music, lighting, and even costumes can all be used to highlight a multifaceted character’s emotional and physical changes. In A Doll’s House, by Henrik Ibsen, and A Streetcar Named Desire, by Tennessee Williams, the playwrights primarily use costumes, which parallel the emotional and behavioral changes of important dynamic characters, and contrast in dialogue to amplify developments and changes in the characters’ relationships and behavior. Ibsen’s choice of costume design portrays Nora as a dynamic character in A Doll’s House. Ibsen changes Nora’s costume to parallel her behavioral and emotional changes in the play. The â€Å"Neapolitan fisher-girl† costume, for example, represents Nora’s secrets and their restraint on her autonomy (Ibsen 29). Therefore, Nora’s want to â€Å"tear [the masquerade costume] into a hundred thousand pieces† represents her will to be rid of her lies and to take off of the mask she puts on for Helmer (Ibsen 28). The costume facilitates this need throughout the second act of play. When Nora practices the Tarantella dance, she dances wildly and â€Å"her hair comes down and falls over her shoulders† (Ibsen 47). Wild and free hair has connotations of independence and liberation. Therefore, the costume begins to show the audience her will to free herself from the mask she puts on for Helmer. However, she remains in the dress at this point in the play meaning that she is still restricted by the disguise she wears for Helmer’s satisfaction. Again, the dress highlights Nora’s development when it is removed in Act III before Nora gathers the courage to tell Helmer she must leave him to gain her independence. Nora’s masquerade ball costume conveys how Nora’s lies and mask of happiness restrain her freedom and helps to illustrate her eventual escape from them. Therefore, the costume design amplifies the characteristics that make Nora a dynamic character. Williams also uses his costume designs to characterize his dynamic characters in A Streetcar Named Desire. However, rather than connecting a specific costume with a feeling, he associates a general type of costume with specific emotions and actions. For example, the lavish costuming of Blanche represents the extent of her desire for, and delusion of, an extravagant life. As the play opens and Blanche enters, her appearance is described as â€Å"incongruous to [the] setting† (Williams 15). She is introduced being dressed as if she believes she should be somewhere and someone else. Furthermore, her beauty from the â€Å"white suit with a fluffy bodice, necklace and earrings of pearl† is described as delicate and sensitive to light (Williams 15). This description of Blanche suggests that her rich and royal appearance is purely superficial and does not represent the reality of her life. This connection between costume design and Blanche’s fabricated reality is continued throughout the play. Before beginning to flirt with the young paper boy in Scene Five, Blanche â€Å"takes a large, gossamer scarf from the trunk and drapes it about her shoulders†, and then begins to pretend he is a young Prince and later makes Mitch bow to her (Williams 84). The playwright, Tennessee Williams, connects Blanche’s affluent adornment with her delusions of wealth and importance that develop and grow stronger as the play progresses. In the final scene, Blanche’s illusions blend almost entirely with her reality as she asks Stella to gather a number of elaborate accessories, including a cool yellow silk boucle and â€Å"a silver and turquoise pin in the shape of a seahorse†, and dresses herself in a dress and jacket of a color that Madonna once wore (Williams 132/135). Williams uses this costume to amplify the absurdity of Blanche’s illusion of spending her life on the sea with a millionaire. Therefore, Blanche’s costume choices in A Streetcar Named Desire connect to her developing insanity, which makes her a complex and dynamic character. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen also utilizes tension in dialogue, specifically the tension between Nora’s inward and outward expression of feelings surrounding worth, to portray Nora as a dynamic character. The playwright first creates a contradiction between her internal and external feelings, only to eventually change her apparent expression to match her true feelings. In the first two acts of the play, Nora’s outward expression of a woman’s worth revolves around being a good wife and mother by aiming to please Helmer, her husband. However, her inward feelings portray the opposite. Nora inwardly believes that worth involves being true to herself. Nora is outwardly submissive to her husband by allowing herself to be called by possessive pet names, such as his â€Å"little spendthrift†, his â€Å"squirrel†, or his â€Å"extravagant little person† (Ibsen 2-3). Furthermore, even Nora uses these labels for herself during the first two acts. These names put Nora in a submissive position because they define Nora as a possession of Helmer’s. Therefore, when Nora labels herself a skylark or squirrel, she outwardly submits to the will of her husband, proving her external idea of worth revolves around his happiness. However, whenever Nora yields to Helmer, there are undertones of sarcasm within the dialogue portrayed both by the stage directions and the writing. When Nora first calls herself Helmer’s skylark and squirrel, she does so while â€Å"smiling quietly and happily†, as if she aims to manipulate him with her words (Ibsen 4). This example of irony mixed with manipulation illustrates the contradiction between what Nora outwardly expresses and what she internally believes. Nora’s sarcasm is also present directly in her dialogue with Helmer. In the conclusion of the first act, Nora asks Helmer to â€Å"take [her] in hand and decide† how she should attend the masquerade ball (Ibsen 25). The sarcasm she speaks these lines with is evident when she utilizes hyperboles to appeal to Helmer’s ego, such as telling him â€Å"no one has such good taste† and that she â€Å"can’t get along a bit without† his help (Ibsen 25). Therefore, Nora’s exaggerated submission to Helmer suggests a dichotomy between her internal ideas of worth and her actions. Yet, as the play develops, Nora’s actions begin to match her interpretation of value. She begins to overtly become a subject of her life, rather than the subject of her husband’s. In the final pages of Act III, Nora discards the view she externally portrayed in the first acts of A Doll’s House by explicitly rejecting Helmer’s assertion that â€Å"before all else, [she is] a wife and a mother† (Ibsen 66). She explains to Helmer that she believes that â€Å"before all else [she] is a reasonable human being†¦ [who] must think over things for [herself] and get to understand them† (Ibsen 66). This rejection of blind obedience and assertion of autonomy supports the claim that Nora’s outward expression developed over the course of the final act to match her opinion of worthiness. Because Nora’s expression of merit changed over the course of the play, she is considered a dynamic, or multifaceted character. Therefore, Ibsen’s use of dialogue in A Doll’s House is instrumental in portraying Nora as an important and multidimensional character. Tennessee Williams also uses tension in dialogue within his play, A Streetcar Named Desire, to portray his significant characters as multidimensional. However, rather than creating tension by using contradiction to develop a single character’s dialogue, Williams creates tension by contrasting the dialogue of Stanley and Blanche. This distinction between the two characters, and the way they communicate in the play, causes behavioral changes suggesting that dialogue is responsible for dynamic transformations in the characters’ actions. Blanche’s speech is educated and full of literary illusions. She uses a reference to the gothic poet Edgar Allen Poe to describe her sister’s life and situation by calling her neighborhood â€Å"the ghoul-haunted woodland of Weir† (Williams 20). This complexity present in Blanche’s dialogue portrays her as a representation of the old, aristocratic South. In contrast with Blanche’s more sophisticated way of speaking, Stanley uses simple societal based metaphors and commonplace clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in his dialogue. Rather than using a literary based metaphor for Blanche, Stanley uses one based on politics. Stanley describes her fame in Laurel â€Å"as if she [were] the President of the United States, only she is not respected by any party† (Williams 99). Additionally, the clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s Stanley uses in his speech, such as â€Å"no, siree, bob†, â€Å"boy, oh, boy†, or â€Å"the jig was all up† portrays Stanley as the down-to-earth representation of the New South (Williams 100-101). The contrast between the dialogue of the two characters and the connection it has with the social group they identify with highlights their dynamic characteristics by emphasizing Blanche’s attempt and ultimate failure to integrate herself into the less aristocratic and educated New Orleans. Therefore, the playwright’s effort to contrast the dialogues of Blanche and Stanley facilitates Blanche’s representation as a multifaceted and changing character in A Streetcar Named Desire. Analyzing how a playwright portrays his or her dynamic characters gives insight into what the playwright intends to say through their development. For example, Henrik Ibsen uses a single costume to connect the audience with Nora’s progression into an autonomous woman in order to focus the audience’s attention on a single facet of Nora’s life and desires, while Williams uses many costumes with varying degrees of lavishness, to highlight the degree to which Blanche blends reality with fantasy. Furthermore, Ibsen uses tension in dialogue of a single character to keep the audience’s focus on Nora, while Williams contrasts the speech of two characters to highlight the contrast between two different social worlds, the new and old South. Therefore, the most important characters in a play are always multidimensional characters because most of a playwright’s commentary is included in the development of these characters and analyzing the techniques a playwright employs to distinguish a dynamic character helps to convey meaning. Bibliography Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Print. Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Signet, 1975. Print.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Lee-Enfield Rifle in World War I and II

The Lee-Enfield was the primary infantry rifle used by British and Commonwealth forces during the first half of the 20th century. Introduced in 1895, it was a magazine-fed, bolt-action rifle that replaced the earlier Lee-Metford. Constantly improved and enhanced, the Lee-Enfield moved through a multitude of variants during its service life. The Short Lee-Enfield (SMLE) Mk. III was the principal rifle used during World War I, while the Rifle No. 4 version saw extensive service in World War II. Variants of the Lee-Enfield remained the British Armys standard rifle until 1957. The weapon and its derivatives continued to be used around the world. Development The Lee-Enfield traces it roots back to 1888, when the British Army adopted the Magazine Rifle Mk. I, also known as the Lee-Metford. Created by James P. Lee, the rifle utilized a cock-on-closing bolt with rear locking lugs, and was designed to fire the British .303 black powder cartridge. The design of the action permitted easier and faster operation than similar German Mauser designs of the day. With the shift to smokeless powder (cordite), problems began to arise with the Lee-Metford as the new propellant caused greater heat and pressure which wore away the barrels rifling. To address this issue, the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield designed a new square-shaped rifling system which proved resistant to wear. Combining Lees bolt-action with the Enfield barrel led to the production of the first Lee-Enfields in 1895. Designated .303 caliber, Rifle, Magazine, Lee-Enfield, the weapon was frequently referred to as the MLE (Magazine Lee-Enfield) or the Long Lee in reference to its barrel length. Among the upgrades incorporated into the MLE, was a 10-round detachable magazine. This was initially debated as some critics feared that soldiers would lose it in the field. In 1899, both the MLE and the cavalry carbine version saw service during the Boer War in South Africa. During the conflict, problems arose regarding the weapons accuracy and a lack of charger loading. Officials at Enfield began working to address these issues, as well as to create a single weapon for both infantry and cavalry use. The result was the Short Lee-Enfield (SMLE) Mk. I, which possessed charger loading (2 five-round chargers) and vastly improved sights. Entering service in 1904, the design was further refined over the next three years to produce the iconic SMLE Mk. III. Lee Enfield Mk. III Cartridge: .303 BritishCapacity: 10 roundsMuzzle Velocity: 2,441 ft./sec.Effective Range: 550 yds.Weight: approx. 8.8 lbs.Length: 44.5 in.Barrel Length: 25 in.Sights: Sliding ramp rear sights, fixed-post front sights, dial long-range volley sightsAction: Bolt-actionNumber Built: approx. 17 million Short Lee-Enfield Mk. III Introduced on January 26, 1907, the SMLE Mk. III possessed a modified chamber capable of firing the new Mk. VII High Velocity spitzer .303 ammunition, a fixed charger guide, and simplified rear sights. The standard British infantry weapon of World War I, the SMLE Mk. III soon proved too complicated for industry to produce in sufficient numbers to meet wartime needs. To deal with this problem, a stripped down version was designed in 1915. Dubbed the SMLE Mk. III*, it did away with the Mk. IIIs magazine cut-off, volley sights, and rear-sight windage adjustment. British forces with their SMLE Mk. IIIs in the trenches during World War I. Public Domain During the conflict, the SMLE proved a superior rifle on the battlefield and one capable of keeping up high rates of accurate fire. Many stories recount German troops reporting encountering machine gun fire, when in fact they had met trained British troops equipped with SMLEs. In the years after the war, Enfield attempted to permanently address the Mk. IIIs production issues. This experiment resulted in the SMLE Mk. V which possessed a new receiver-mounted aperture sighting system and a magazine cut-off. Despite their efforts, the Mk. V proved to be more difficult and costly to build than the Mk. III. World War II In 1926, the British Army changed its nomenclature and the Mk. III became known as Rifle No. 1 Mk. III. Over the next few years, Enfield continued to improve the weapon, ultimately producing the Rifle No. 1, Mk. VI in 1930. Retaining the Mk. Vs rear aperture sights and magazine cut-off, it introduced a new floating barrel. With tensions in Europe rising, the British began searching for a new rifle in the late 1930s. This resulted in the design of the Rifle No. 4 Mk. I. Though approved in 1939, large-scale production did not begin until 1941, forcing British troops to begin World War II with the No. 1 Mk. III. While British forces in Europe deployed with the No. 1 Mk. III, ANZAC and other Commonwealth troops retained their No. 1 Mk. III*s which remained popular due to their simple, easy to produce design. With the arrival of the No. 4 Mk. I, British forces obtained a version of the Lee-Enfield that possessed the updates of the No. 1 Mk. VIs, but was heavier than their old No. Mk. IIIs due to a longer barrel. During the war, the Lee-Enfields action was utilized in a variety of weapons such as jungle carbines (Rifle No. 5 Mk. I), commando carbines (De Lisle Commando), and an experimental automatic rifle (Charlton AR). Post-World War II: With end of hostilities, the British produced a final update of the venerable Lee-Enfield, the Rifle No. 4, Mk. 2. All existing stocks of No. Mk. Is were updated to the Mk. 2 standard. The weapon remained the primary rifle in the British inventory until the adoption of the L1A1 SLR in 1957. It is still used by some Commonwealth militaries today, though it is more commonly found in ceremonial, reserve force, and police roles. The Ishapore Rifle Factory in India began producing a derivative of the No. 1 Mk. III in 1962.