Saturday, May 23, 2020

Biography of Emily Dickinson, American Poet

Emily Dickinson (December 10, 1830–May 15, 1886) was an American poet best known for her eccentric personality and her frequent themes of death and mortality. Although she was a prolific writer, only a few of her poems were published during her lifetime. Despite being mostly unknown while she was alive, her poetry—nearly 1,800 poems altogether—has become a staple of the American literary canon, and scholars and readers alike have long held a fascination with her unusual life. Fast Facts: Emily Dickinson Full Name:  Emily Elizabeth DickinsonKnown For:  American poetBorn:  December 10, 1830 in Amherst, MassachusettsDied: May 15, 1886 in Amherst, MassachusettsParents:  Edward Dickinson and Emily Norcross DickinsonEducation:  Amherst Academy, Mount Holyoke Female SeminaryPublished Works: Poems (1890), Poems: Second Series (1891), Poems: Third Series (1896)Notable Quote:  If I read a book and it makes my whole body so cold no fire can ever warm me, I know that is poetry. Early Life Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born into a prominent family in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her father, Edward Dickinson, was a lawyer, a politician, and a trustee of Amherst College, of which his father, Samuel Dickinson, was a founder. He and his wife Emily (nee Norcross) had three children; Emily Dickinson was the second child and eldest daughter, and she had an older brother, William Austin (who generally went by his middle name), and a younger sister, Lavinia. By all accounts, Dickinson was a pleasant, well-behaved child who particularly loved music. Because Dickinson’s father was adamant that his children be well-educated, Dickinson received a more rigorous and more classical education than many other girls of her era. When she was ten, she and her sister began attending Amherst Academy, a former academy for boys that had just begun accepting female students two years earlier. Dickinson continued to excel at her studies, despite their rigorous and challenging nature, and studied literature, the sciences, history, philosophy, and Latin. Occasionally, she did have to take time off from school due to repeated illnesses. Portrait of (from left) Emily, Austin, and Lavinia Dickinson, circa 1840.   Culture Club / Getty Images Dickinson’s preoccupation with death began at this young age as well. At the age of fourteen, she suffered her first major loss when her friend and cousin Sophia Holland died of typhus. Holland’s death sent her into such a melancholy spiral that she was sent away to Boston to recover. Upon her recovery, she returned to Amherst, continuing her studies alongside some of the people who would be her lifelong friends, including her future sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert. After completing her education at Amherst Academy, Dickinson enrolled at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She spent less than a year there, but explanations for her early departure vary depending on the source: her family wanted her to return home, she disliked the intense, evangelical religious atmosphere, she was lonely, she didn’t like the teaching style. In any case, she returned home by the time she was 18 years old. Reading, Loss, and Love A family friend, a young attorney named Benjamin Franklin Newton, became a friend and mentor to Dickinson. It was most likely him who introduced her to the writings of William Wordsworth and Ralph Waldo Emerson, which later influenced and inspired her own poetry. Dickinson read extensively, helped by friends and family who brought her more books; among her most formative influences was the work of William Shakespeare, as well as Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. Dickinson was in good spirits in the early 1850s, but it did not last. Once again, people near to her died, and she was devastated. Her friend and mentor Newton died of tuberculosis, writing to Dickinson before he died to say he wished he could live to see her achieve greatness. Another friend, the Amherst Academy principal Leonard Humphrey, died suddenly at only 25 years old in 1850. Her letters and writings at the time are filled with the depth of her melancholy moods. Portrait of Emily Dickinson, circa 1850.   Three Lions / Getty Images During this time, Dickinson’s old friend Susan Gilbert was her closest confidante. Beginning in 1852, Gilbert was courted by Dickinson’s brother Austin, and they married in 1856, although it was a generally unhappy marriage. Gilbert was much closer to Dickinson, with whom she shared a passionate and intense correspondence and friendship. In the view of many contemporary scholars, the relationship between the two women was, very likely, a romantic one, and possibly the most important relationship of either of their lives. Aside from her personal role in Dickinson’s life, Gilbert also served as a quasi-editor and advisor to Dickinson during her writing career. Dickinson did not travel much outside of Amherst, slowly developing the later reputation for being reclusive and eccentric. She cared for her mother, who was essentially homebound with chronic illnesses from the 1850s onward. As she became more and more cut off from the outside world, however, Dickinson leaned more into her inner world and thus into her creative output. Conventional Poetry (1850s – 1861) I'm Nobody! Who are you? (1891) Im Nobody! Who are you?Are you — Nobody — too?Then theres a pair of us!Dont tell! theyd advertise — you know.How dreary — to be — Somebody!How public — like a Frog —To tell ones name — the livelong June —To an admiring Bog! It’s unclear when, exactly, Dickinson began writing her poems, though it can be assumed that she was writing for some time before any of them were ever revealed to the public or published. Thomas H. Johnson, who was behind the collection The Poems of Emily Dickinson, was able to definitely date only five of Dickinsons poems to the period before 1858. In that early period, her poetry was marked by an adherence to the conventions of the time. Two of her five earliest poems are actually satirical, done in the style of witty, â€Å"mock† valentine poems with deliberately flowery and overwrought language. Two more of them reflect the more melancholy tone she would be better known for. One of those is about her brother Austin and how much she missed him, while the other, known by its first line â€Å"I have a Bird in spring,† was written for Gilbert and was a lament about the grief of fearing the loss of friendship. A few of Dickinson’s poems were published in the Springfield Republican between 1858 and 1868; she was friends with its editor, journalist Samuel Bowles, and his wife Mary. All of those poems were published anonymously, and they were heavily edited, removing much of Dickinson’s signature stylization, syntax, and punctuation. The first poem published, Nobody knows this little rose,† may have actually been published without Dickinson’s permission. Another poem, â€Å"Safe in their Alabaster Chambers,† was retitled and published as â€Å"The Sleeping.† By 1858, Dickinson had begun organizing her poems, even as she wrote more of them. She reviewed and made fresh copies of her poetry, putting together manuscript books. Between 1858 and 1865, she produced 40 manuscripts, comprising just under 800 poems. During this time period, Dickinson also drafted a trio of letters which were later referred to as the â€Å"Master Letters.† They were never sent and were discovered as drafts among her papers. Addressed to an unknown man she only calls â€Å"Master,† they’re poetic in a strange way that has eluded understanding even by the most educated of scholars. They may not have even been intended for a real person at all; they remain one of the major mysteries of Dickinson’s life and writings. Prolific Poet (1861 – 1865) â€Å"Hope† is the thing with feathers (1891) Hope is the thing with feathersThat perches in the soulAnd sings the tune without the wordsAnd never stops at allAnd sweetest in the Gale is heardAnd sore must be the storm —That could abash the little BirdThat kept so many warm —Ive heard it in the chillest land —And on the strangest Sea —Yet, never, in Extremity,It asked a crumb — of Me. Dickinson’s early 30s were by far the most prolific writing period of her life. For the most part, she withdrew almost completely from society and from interactions with locals and neighbors (though she still wrote many letters), and at the same time, she began writing more and more. Her poems from this period were, eventually, the gold standard for her creative work. She developed her unique style of writing, with unusual and specific syntax, line breaks, and punctuation. It was during this time that the themes of mortality that she was best known for began to appear in her poems more often. While her earlier works had occasionally touched on themes of grief, fear, or loss, it wasn’t until this most prolific era that she fully leaned into the themes that would define her work and her legacy. Cover of an 1890 first edition of Poems. / Wikimedia Commons It is estimated that Dickinson wrote more than 700 poems between 1861 and 1865. She also corresponded with literary critic Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who became one of her close friends and lifelong correspondents. Dickinson’s writing from the time seemed to embrace a little bit of melodrama, alongside deeply felt and genuine sentiments and observations. Later work (1866 – 1870s) Because I could not stop for Death (1890) Because I could not stop for Death—He kindly stopped for me—The Carriage held but just Ourselves—And Immortality.We slowly drove—He knew no haste,And I had put awayMy labor and my leisure too,For His Civility—We passed the School, where Children stroveAt recess—in the ring—We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—We passed the Setting Sun—Or rather—He passed Us—The Dews drew quivering and chill—For only Gossamer, my Gown—My Tippet—only Tulle—We paused before a House that seemedA Swelling of the Ground—The Roof was scarcely visible—The Cornice—in the Ground—Since then—tis centuries— and yetFeels shorter than the DayI first surmised the Horses HeadsWere toward Eternity— By 1866, Dickinson’s productivity began tapering off. She had suffered personal losses, including that of her beloved dog Carlo, and her trusted household servant got married and left her household in 1866. Most estimates suggest that she wrote about one third of her body of work after 1866. Around 1867, Dickinson’s reclusive tendencies became more and more extreme. She began refusing to see visitors, only speaking to them from the other side of a door, and rarely went out in public. On the rare occasions she did leave the house, she always wore white, gaining notoriety as â€Å"the woman in white.† Despite this avoidance of physical socialization, Dickinson was a lively correspondent; around two-thirds of her surviving correspondence was written between 1866 and her death, 20 years later. Illustration of the Dickinson home in Amherst.   Culture Club / Getty Images Dickinson’s personal life during this time was complicated as well. She lost her father to a stroke in 1874, but she refused to come out of her self-imposed seclusion for his memorial or funeral services. She also may have briefly had a romantic correspondence with Otis Phillips Lord, a judge and a widower who was a longtime friend. Very little of their correspondence survives, but what does survive shows that they wrote to each other like clockwork, every Sunday, and their letters were full of literary references and quotations. Lord died in 1884, two years after Dickinson’s old mentor, Charles Wadsworth, had died after a long illness. Literary Style and Themes Even a cursory glance at Dickinson’s poetry reveals some of the hallmarks of her style. Dickinson embraced highly unconventional use of punctuation, capitalization, and line breaks, which she insisted were crucial to the meaning of the poems. When her early poems were edited for publication, she was seriously displeased, arguing the edits to the stylization had altered the whole meaning. Her use of meter is also somewhat unconventional, as she avoids the popular pentameter for tetrameter or trimeter, and even then is irregular in her use of meter within a poem. In other ways, however, her poems stuck to some conventions; she often used ballad stanza forms and ABCB rhyme schemes. The themes of Dickinson’s poetry vary widely. She’s perhaps most well known for her preoccupation with mortality and death, as exemplified in one of her most famous poems, â€Å"Because I did not stop for Death.† In some cases, this also stretched to her heavily Christian themes, with poems tied into the Christian Gospels and the life of Jesus Christ. Although her poems dealing with death are sometimes quite spiritual in nature, she also has a surprisingly colorful array of descriptions of death by various, sometimes violent means. On the other hand, Dickinson’s poetry often embraces humor and even satire and irony to make her point; she’s not the dreary figure she is often portrayed as because of her more morbid themes. Many of her poems use garden and floral imagery, reflecting her lifelong passion for meticulous gardening and often using the â€Å"language of flowers† to symbolize themes such as youth, prudence, or even poetry itself. The images of nature also occasionally showed up as living creatures, as in her famous poem â€Å"Hope is the thing with feathers.† Death Dickinson reportedly kept writing until nearly the end of her life, but her lack of energy showed through when she no longer edited or organized her poems. Her family life became more complicated as her brother’s marriage to her beloved Susan fell apart and Austin instead turned to a mistress, Mabel Loomis Todd, who Dickinson never met. Her mother died in 1882, and her favorite nephew in 1883. Through 1885, her health declined, and her family grew more concerned. Dickinson became extremely ill in May of 1886 and died on May 15, 1886. Her doctor declared the cause of death to be Bright’s disease, a disease of the kidneys. Susan Gilbert was asked to prepare her body for burial and to write her obituary, which she did with great care. Dickinson was buried in her family’s plot at West Cemetery in Amherst. Emily Dickinsons grave in her familys plot in Amherst. Midnightdreary / Wikimedia Commons   Legacy The great irony of Dickinson’s life is that she was largely unknown during her lifetime. In fact, she was probably better known as a talented gardener than as a poet. Fewer than a dozen of her poems were actually published for public consumption when she was alive. It wasn’t until after her death, when her sister Lavinia discovered her manuscripts of over 1,800 poems, that her work was published in bulk. Since that first publication, in 1890, Dickinson’s poetry has never been out of print. At first, the non-traditional style of her poetry led to her posthumous publications getting somewhat mixed receptions. At the time, her experimentation with style and form led to criticism over her skill and education, but decades later, those same qualities were praised as signifying her creativity and daring. In the 20th century, there was a resurgence of interest and scholarship in Dickinson, particularly with regards to studying her as a female poet, not separating her gender from her work as earlier critics and scholars had. While her eccentric nature and choice of a secluded life has occupied much of Dickinson’s image in popular culture, she is still regarded as a highly respected and highly influential American poet. Her work is consistently taught in high schools and colleges, is never out of print, and has served as the inspiration for countless artists, both in poetry and in other media. Feminist artists in particular have often found inspiration in Dickinson; both her life and her impressive body of work have provided inspiration to countless creative works. Sources Habegger, Alfred.  My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Random House, 2001.Johnson, Thomas H. (ed.).  The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown Co., 1960.Sewall, Richard B. The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1974.Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. Emily Dickinson. New York. Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Final Study Guide †Eco/372 Free Essays

ECO/372 Final Examination Study Guide This study guide prepares you for the Final Examination you complete in the last week of the course. It contains practice questions, which are related to each week’s objectives. Highlight the correct response, and then refer to the answer key at the end of this Study Guide to check your answers. We will write a custom essay sample on Final Study Guide – Eco/372 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Use each week’s questions as a self-test at the start of a new week to reflect on the previous week’s concepts. When you come across concepts that you are unfamiliar with, refer to the Student Guide for that particular week. Week One: Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Objective: Explain the economic interaction of resources among households, government, and businesses. 1. Which group has ultimate control over the U. S. economy? a. Business b. Households c. Multinationals d. Government 2. When a government intervenes in an economy in a way that influences the relationship between households and businesses, it is a. serving as an economic actor b. serving as an economic referee c. serving the public good d. reducing social welfare by interfering with the invisible hand Objective: Describe gross domestic product, inflation rate, unemployment rate, and interest rate. . Per capita real output would most likely increase if a. both real GDP and population increase b. both real GDP and population decrease c. real GDP increases and population decreases d. real GDP decreases and population increases 4. In 2006, U. S. real GDP increased by 3. 3 percent. Based on this information, we can infer that the U. S. experienced a. a recession in 2006 b. an expansion in 2006 c. a depression in 2006 d. a trough in 2006 Objective: Identify sources of historical economic data and economic forecasts. 5. The Bureau of Economic Analysis is responsible for which of the following? a. Setting interest rates b. Managing the money supply c. Calculating U. S. gross domestic product d. Paying unemployment benefits. 6. The Federal Reserve will most likely _______ the money supply when the economy is experiencing a recession a. increase b. decrease c. stabilize d. manage Week Two: Aggregate Demand and Supply Models Objective: Analyze the impact of various factors on aggregate demand and supply. 7. The AD curve a. will shift as much as the initial shift factor when the multiplier is greater than one b. will shift by more than initial shift factor when the multiplier is greater than one c. ill shift by less than the initial shift factor due to leakages d. could shift by more or less than the initial shift factor 8. Theparadox paradox of thrift occurs when a. an increase in saving raises output b. an increase in saving reduces output c. saving is unrelated to output d. a decrease in saving reduces output 9. Suppose output exceeds potential output and a contractionary fisca l policy is enacted. According to the AS/AD model, in the long run, this fiscal policy will produce   a. a lower output level and a lower price level than would otherwise have occurred b. lower price level than would otherwise have occurred c. a lower output level than would otherwise have occurred d. neither a lower price level nor a lower output level than would otherwise have occurred 10. According to the AS/AD model, an expansionary monetary policy a. increases interest rates, raises investment, and increases income b. decreases interest rates, raises investment, and increases income c. increases interest rates, reduces investment, and decreases income d. decreases interest rates, reduces investment, and decreases income Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of changes in fiscal policies using Keynesian and Classical models 11. According to Keynes, the economy could become stuck at a low income level if   a. declines in aggregate demand and aggregate supply reinforce one another b. declines in aggregate demand are not accompanied by declines in aggregate supply c. declines in aggregate supply are not accompanied by declines in aggregate demand d. aggregate demand and aggregate supply are independent of one another 12. The Classical economists argued that: a. market economy will not experience unemployment. b. if unemployment occurs, it will cure itself because wages and prices will fall. c. aggregate expenditures may be too low. d. if inflation occurs it will cure itself because prices, wages, and interest rates will rise. Week Three: Monetary Policy Objective: Assess the factors contributing to the establishment of general and specific rates of interest. 13. When the Federal Reserve targets a high er interest rate, this change in policy involves open market   a. purchases of government securities that reduced reserves b. urchases of government securities that increased reserves c. sales of government securities that reduced reserves d. sales of government securities that increased reserves 14. When the Federal Reserve sells bonds, the a. Federal funds rate increases b. reserve requirement falls c. discount rate increases d. discount rate decreases Objective: Explain the role of the Federal Reserve System in designing and implementing U. S. monetary policies. 15. Who buys and sells in the Federal Reserve funds market? a. Commercial banks and depository institutions b. Large financial institutions c. Financial institutions and large corporations d. Anyone with a computer and an Internet connection can participate 16. The Federal fund rate is always _______ compared to the discount a. higher b. lower c. equal d. comparable Objective: Analyze how the money multiplier effect facilitates the creation of money. 17. If the multiplier effect is 4, a $15 billion increase in government expenditures will shift the AD curve   a. to the right by $15 billion b. to the left by $15 billion c. to the right by $60 billion d. to the left by $60 billion 18. Suppose the money multiplier in the U. S. s 4. If the Federal Reserve wants to expand the money supply by 600 it should:   a. buy government securities worth 150. b. buy government securities worth 600. c. sell government securities worth 150. d. sell government securities worth 600. Week Four: Fiscal Policy: Politics, Deficits, and Debt Objective: Analyze the influence of deficit, surplus, and debt on the health of the U. S. macroeconomy. 1 9. When the government runs a deficit, it will a. buy bonds to finance the deficit b. sell bonds to finance the deficit c. reduce the money supply to finance the deficit d. raise taxes immediately 0. Deficits may be desirable in the short run if they a. help to stabilize the economy when the economy falls below potential output b. increase savings necessary for future investment and growth c. increase savings necessary for future consumption and demand d. help to stabilize the economy when the economy is above potential output 21. The structural deficit a. rises as the economy expands and falls when it contracts b. falls as the economy expands and rises when it contracts c. changes as actual income changes regardless of potential income d. oes not change when income changes, but changes only when potential income changes 22. Government debt is defined as a. a shortfall of incoming revenue under outgoing payment b. a shortfall of outgoing payments under incoming revenue c. accumulate d deficits minus accumulated surpluses d. accumulated deficits plus accumulated surpluses Week Five: International Trade and Finance Objective: Analyze the effects of international trade on the U. S. macroeconomy. 23. According to comparative advantage, specialization means that a country is producing the goods   a. that it wants to consume b. or which it has a relatively high opportunity cost c. for which it has a relatively low opportunity cost d. that it can produce at zero cost 24. Globalization represents a. a return to isolationism b. the opposite of isolationism c. the economic complement of political isolationism d. the political complement of economic isolationism 25. If the U. S. wants to strengthen the value of the dollar, it should use a. contractionary fiscal policy b. expansionary fiscal policy c. contractionary monetary policy d. expansionary monetary policy 26. Which of the following would most likely cause an increase in the upply of dollars? a. An expansionary fi scal policy that raised U. S. income and increased U. S. imports b. An expansionary fiscal policy that raised U. S. income and reduced U. S. imports c. A contractionary fiscal policy that reduced U. S. income and lowered U. S. imports d. A contractionary fiscal policy that reduced U. S. income and increased U. S. imports Objective: Explain how foreign exchange rates are determined. 27. Suppose a basket of goods costs 60,000 pesos in Mexico. If, at the existing exchange rate, it costs less than 60,000 pesos to buy the same basket of goods in the U. S. , then purchasing power parity implies that the a. dollar is overvalue b. peso is undervalue c. dollar should cost fewer pesos d. dollar should cost more pesos 28. If a basket of goods costs $10 in the U. S. and 100,000 rubles in Russia, then purchasing power parity will exist if the exchange rate between the ruble and the dollar is   a. 1,000 rubles per dollar b. 10,000 rubles per dollar c. 0. 01 dollars per ruble d. 0. 1 dollars per ruble Objective: Analyze the impact of trade restrictions, tariffs, and quotas on the U. S. macroeconomy. 29. A quota differs from a tariff in that quotas a. imit the volume of imports more than tariffs b. do not increase the price of imports as much as tariffs c. do not generate tax revenues, unlike tariffs d. reduce consumer welfare more than tariffs 30. Threats to put tariffs on a nation in an attempt to get that nation to reduce its restrictions on trade are called: a. strategic trade policies b. trade adjustment assistance programs c. learning by doing d. inertia and cachet Answer Key 1. b 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. b 13. c 14. a 15. a 16. b 17. c 18. a 19. b 20. a 21. d 22. c 23. c 24. b 25. c 26. a 27. d 28. b 29. c 30. a How to cite Final Study Guide – Eco/372, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Emerging Technologies and Innovation ICT Controversies

Question: Discuss about theEmerging Technologies and Innovationfor ICT Controversies. Answer: Introduction The purpose of this study is to evaluate two ICT controversies in order to investigate the ethical dilemmas of the cases. The term ICT stands for Information and Communication Technologies. Nowadays, technology in improving rapidly and therefore, scientists are paying close attention to the prevention of related constraints. In this study, two ICT controversies have been chosen such as Where has all the data gone? Service providers capturing metadata and Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat to Humanity. These articles emphasize that how technological improvement has diverse impact on moral values of human beings. Moreover, the analysis of these articles has shown the fairness and justice while conducting decision-making. This study focuses on the alternative way that could help to overcome the constraint of the potential issues. Issues of Justice and Fairness The first controversy is about the telecommunication service providers are not capturing and retaining the metadata. However, according to the law enforcement, service providers should record and retain those data for at least two years. It helps the security agencies to gather raw data before starting a specific investigation (Ekbia et al., 2015). According to the legal facts, these security agencies are free to hack information of the users without any restriction. Therefore, it is difficult for the users to maintain privacy while using the services (Ghezzi, Cortimiglia Frank, 2015). According to the telecommunications Act 1979, service providers should protect information of the users. However, the process of storing and retaining Meta data for minimum two years is completely opposite of the data protection act as well. Now, the issue is, the overall process of recording and retaining Meta Data is affecting communication flow negatively. On the other hand, monitoring users inform ation helps to reduce change of crime in an efficient manner. The moral dilemma of this case is whether the decision of recording and retaining users information is good or bad for the society (Nathan 2015). In this article, some examples have been provided in order to elaborate the case. After reviewing this case, it has been noted that people may face diverse situation due to misinterpretation of data. Here, the security agencies are bound to follow their responsibilities and therefore it may create diverse situation for people. The second article is about the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on humanity. In this article, it has been emphasized that how AI can affect the humanity in different situation. Research shows that AI is not in developing stage ad scientists are afraid about the diverse impact of the emerging improvement of AI. Here, the issue is Artificial Intelligence cannot be able to understand the critical decision-making (Gurkaynak, Yilmaz Haksever, 2016). Moreover, the scientists have argued that artificial intelligence would not be able to distinguish between strategy and alternative implementation process. The article emphasizes on how improvement of AI can create difficulties for the humanity (Lorenc, 2015). For example, artificial intelligence in traffic control may cause accident or traffic congestion due to lack of common sense. Here, Musk has mentioned that improvement in AI is not against technological improve (Fast Horvitz, 2016). However, he has mentioned that scientists shou ld consider the prevention in order to develop AI carefully. When it comes to the fairness and justice to the viewpoint of scientists, it can be said that people should take proper cautions before implementing artificial intelligence. The Right Thing to do In order to overcome the constraints of both the cases, it is highly important to understand the significance in an appropriate manner. There are two controversies such as data handling issue of telecommunication companies and the threat of artificial intelligence. After reviewing the articles, it has been identified that both the articles have mentioned different issues regarding the cases. Following are the right things that would help to overcome the identified constraints identified in these articles. Recommendations for article 1: In the first article, the issues regarding data storing and retaining has been evaluated. On the other hand, the security agencies are using the stored information in order to reduce crime (Ward, 2015). However, the overall process has negative impact on privacy of people. Therefore, it is the sole responsibilities of the security agencies to evaluate the gathered information in order to overcome the constraints. Moreover, the telecommunication service providers should maintain ethical practices in order to ensure data privacy of the users (Mller, 2016). Recommendations for article 2: In this case, scientists should take proper prevention in order to reduce the threat of artificial intelligence. According to the article, the scientists are considering AI as threat to humanity. The scientists are assuming that improving this particular technology would create diverse situation for the entire humanity (Mller, 2016). The artificial drones would not be able to distinguish between the assign responsibility and human intelligence. Sharing the Findings In order to share the findings an Ethical Analysis Discussion Board has been formed containing four members. Here, the discussion on the findings has been provided In order to understand the ethical dilemmas. Following is the discussion of the board members regarding both the selected case studies. Board member 1: According to the first board member, both telecommunication service providers and security agencies should maintain ethical practice in order to deal with the situation. Moreover, the legal conflict with data protection act should be taken under consideration in order to overcome the issues. The security agencies should evaluate the information properly before taking any kind of charge against people. On the other hand, the first board member has stated that artificial intelligence would help the society to overcome many constraints. However, it might be a threat to humanity, because artificial intelligence would not be able to adopt human intelligence, which can be either ethical or unethical. Board member 2: The second board member has stated that improvement in data recording and retention would help to comply with the legal framework. However, it would violate certain legal enforcements, which would create conflicts. Moreover, it is not possible for the security agencies to distinguish between genuine and fraud cases. The investigation process should be strict and according to the policies. In case of artificial intelligence, the second board member has stated that huge improvement of this technology would hamper the humanity and human behavior as well. References Ekbia, H., Mattioli, M., Kouper, I., Arave, G., Ghazinejad, A., Bowman, T., ... Sugimoto, C. R. (2015). Big data, bigger dilemmas: A critical review.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,66(8), 1523-1545 Fast, E., Horvitz, E. (2016). Long-Term Trends in the Public Perception of Artificial Intelligence.arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.04904 Ghezzi, A., Cortimiglia, M. N., Frank, A. G. (2015). Strategy and business model design in dynamic telecommunications industries: A study on Italian mobile network operators.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,90, 346-354 Gurkaynak, G., Yilmaz, I., Haksever, G. (2016). Stifling artificial intelligence: Human perils.Computer Law Security Review Lorenc, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and the Ethics of Human Extinction.Journal of Consciousness Studies,22(9-10), 194-214 Mller, V. C. (Ed.). (2016).Risks of Artificial Intelligence. CRC Press Nathan, G. (2015). Innovation process and ethics in technology: an approach to ethical (responsible) innovation governance.Journal on Chain and Network Science,15(2), 119-134 Ward, B. (2015). Emerging Technology and Ethical Innovation: A Case Study Approach to Developing Entrepreneurial Decision Making.Journal of Ethics Entrepreneurship,5(2), 103