Thursday, October 31, 2019

Interactive Group Discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Interactive Group Discussion - Essay Example In line with this, each member was expected to study the PRINCE 2 structure closely. The work was to be chosen by each individual in the group this paved way for the development of, R&D.Members were expected to carry out documentation.The incorporation of individual aspect was to come out at this stage. The individual perspective was to be read out at the next meeting. In the following meetings project approach was identified. Technological Road Map (TRM) was identified. This however presented a new challenge to us. To begin with, two project members had to be explained to what TRM entail as they found it very complex.The identification of objectives brought forward an issue especially on the last. The objective mentioned that The TRM method and other optional methods. This was an issue as the objective was overloaded and vague. Members deliberated and we modified it to only one method. The decision on communication on completion of the work was decided. The group zeroed on email as the best method. Communication was an important aspect of any group interaction. The members were to keep in touch through the use of emails and also physical meetings. To begin with, the method was good as it was fast and time-saving. Considers that internet-based surveys may save time for researchers as access can be gained to a large number of individuals within a short time. In so doing it meant that communication could take place any time of the day as all one needed was a computer and internet connection.... to be chosen by each individual in the group this paved way for the development of ,R&D.Members were expected to carry out documentation .The incorporation of individual aspect was to come out at this stage. The individual perspective was to be read out at the next meeting. In the following meetings project approach was identified. Technological Road Map (TRM) was identified. This however presented a new challenge to us. To begin with two project members had to be explained to what TRM entail as they found it very complex .The identification of objectives brought forward an issue especially on the last. The objective mentioned that The TRM method and other optional methods. This was an issue as the objective was overloaded and vague. Members deliberated and we modified it to only one method. Decision on communication on completion of the work was decided. The group zeroed on email as the best method. Communication was an important aspect in any group interaction. The members were to keep in touch through the use of emails and also physical meetings. The prior, use of emails had pros and cons. To begin with the method was good as it was fast and time saving. Consinders that internet based surveys may save time for researchers as access can be gained to large number of individuals within a short time. ( Wright, 2005 p 8) . In so doing it meant that communication could take place any time of the day as all one needed was a computer and internet connection. Another advantage was that the communication could take place simultaneously between several individuals. (Mann, 2002 p 2) notices , ‘The internet enables to an interchange of messages between two or more users logged at different computer terminals’. However, the methods had certain disadvantages. One could not

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Cesim Global Challange Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Cesim Global Challange Report - Essay Example This situation made it extremely difficult for the company to be attractive to investors and thereby limiting shareholder participation. It would be admitted that the efforts of Team Ochre has clearly brought some levels of improvement but it has not totally solved the situation. Team Ochre’s success can be attributed to a relatively impressive fixed asset which stood at $766,581. Even though this could be higher, it is generally better than what most other groups recorded. A number of factors can be given to explain this, including the production based investments which have already been referred to. Team Ochre is focused on maximizing shareholder value through the provision of massive global representation. Using the unit sales volumes as an indicator for market shares for the company, it was found that the company recorded positive market share in three technologies globally. Unlike its competitors, Team Ochre’s financial performance was spread across three major technologies. These were Tech 1, 2 and 3 with 0.00% market share in Tech 4. Team Ochre is also able to achieve consistent performance by effective future forecasting of its market demands. For example for Tech 1, the total available products were 8,552,000, all of which were produced in the USA with 0 manufactured in Asia. Meanwhile the demand for both markets was only 1,799,000. For Tech 2 also, the situation was not different with 0 products manufactured in Asia with 5,975,000 USA manufacturing against 1,285,000 demands. This certainly shows the effect of poor forecasting on by Team Ochre, the result of which was overproduction. Looking forward, Team Ochre plans to continue to focus its attention on efficient and lean production. The reason for saying this is that even though the company has become marketable and lucrative to customers and thus attracted some improved levels of sales, profits are still low. As of round 9, the

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Role of Homais in Madame Bovary

The Role of Homais in Madame Bovary Elixir for Decayed Corruption In Madame Bovary, Flaubert expresses the complications that give rise as a result of the unsatisfactory life of a young woman belonging to the socio-economic class. He directly introduces criticism of societys antics through many different characters in the novel, each of which play a significant role in delivering his message. One such character is Homais, an apothecary in the town of Yonville. Although this character appears to at first be a simply an insignificant, nosy character, his corrupt and self-serving nature continues to be revealed through his interactions with the people he meets. The purpose of Homais character in the novel is very direct as he represents the hypocritical and cowardly nature of the masculine middle class. His character also enables the society to behave in a corrupt fashion, supporting Flauberts interpretation of civilization as equally corrupt. Flaubert establishes Homais character in the novel as a device in delivering his criticism and ridicule of th e bourgeoisie and society as a whole during this time period. Initially, Homais character appears to act solely as a vehicle for Flauberts criticisms of the new, progressive middle class as cowardly and self serving. A significant manifestation of the corrupt and cowardly nature of Homais appears during a critical error he made causing the amputation of Hippolytes leg. Homais pretends that he wants to take rash actions to cure Hippolytes club foot purely for the benefit of Hippolyte, claiming that, its not for me. Its for you purely out of goodwill (174). However it is revealed that Homais simply wanted to use Hippolytes injury as a stepping stone for his flourishing in the journalism activity. Homais deceitful and sly nature appears as he attempts to convince Hippolyte by providing false hope of being more cheerful and agile and even hints that women would be more pleased after the procedure (174). Homais is essentially the catalyst for the downfall of Hippolyte by using him for his own benefit and becoming taken over by greed. Flaubert critic izes the nature of the middle class to only take action when benefit comes for them. He expands on the loss of human goodwill and shows the decay and corruption that replaces compassion and benevolence. This incident regarding Hippolyte also depicts the cowardly nature of the middle class in the face of confrontation. After the rapid decline of Hippolytes health, a different doctor was summoned in an attempt to find a cure for Hippolyte. The doctor begins the criticize Charles actions stating that he was an idiot who reduced an unfortunate man to such a state (180). He continues on to derail Charles character exclaiming that they load you down with remedies without worrying about the consequences(180). In the midst of the doctors condemnation of Charles, Homais does not defend Charles even though he was the propeller of the action and essentially lays down his dignity for his greater interests. Homais does not take responsibility for his actions and instead simply observes others ta ke the burden of the blame. His cowardly act manifests Flauberts interpretation of the nature of the middle class. Flaubert denounces how the priorities of the socio-economic class appears to be based on materialistic ideals rather than core human values such as dignity, pride, and honesty. Another incident that displays the corrupt self-serving nature of the middle class depicts by Flaubert is Homais treatment towards the blind beggar. Homais considers himself a cultured, intelligent, important man when in reality he is ultimately at the same level of the peasants and lower class he looks down on. Homais proceeds to regard the beggar with contempt describing him as a scrofulous infection and poses as an intelligent man by giving the beggar advice for his blind condition (280). A notable moment that exhibits the cowardly nature of Homais is the action he takes in retaliation to the blind beggar exposing the harmful actions Homais inflicts upon others in an attempt to add to his own benefit. Homais takes advantage of his resources to launch a secret campaign against the beggar, and ultimately succeeds in jailing the beggar in an asylum. His actions shows his resort to oppression of another mans civil liberties in an attempt to protect his own reputation. Homais character acts as a representation of the corrupt and cowardly aspects of the bourgeoisie. However, a depiction of Flauberts criticisms of society as a whole can be assumed to be an addition to the purpose behind the creation of Homais character. Ironically, Homais character is arguably one of the most corrupt in the novel, yet he is the only one who achieves his goal of social mobility. In comparison to characters who appear morally good such as Charles and Berthe Bovary who end up with tragic endings, Homais is able to achieve most if not all of his ambitions and goals. An example ofÂÂ   Homais success is the fact presented that he had just received the Legion of Honor (322). Flaubert presents this fact in a blunt style as the last line of the novel leaving a foul taste in the readers mouths. Homais achievement is not shown to be a beautiful event but rather a small gain in comparison to the corrupt actions he had taken leading up to his success. As a result, Flaubert criticizes society in its capitulation towards societys accolade to the most unethical figures. He condemns the mechanics behind society and essentially exposes the moral decay that is hidden underneath the gilded surface. Through Homais triumph in acquiring the Legion of Honor, Flaubert reveals the twisted nature of the mechanics behind society. He shows the disappointing reality that those who act in sly and immoral ways often times receive more benefit than those who live an honest life. Homais character depicts the segment of society through Flauberts perspective which prevents his evaluation from being truly objective. Moreover, Flaubert attempts to depict the raw corrupt nature of Homais character through a satirical argument between Homais and the priest: Yet, said Homais, it cant be both ways. Either she died in a state of grace (as the Church puts it), in which case she doesnt need prayers; or she died unrepentant (I believe thats the ecclesiastical term), and in that case- Bournisien interrupted, replying in an irritable tone that one needed to pray, no matter what. But, the pharmacist objected, since God knows all our needs, whats the use of prayer? What do you mean? asked the priest. Prayer! Arent you a Christian? I beg your pardon, said Homais. I admire Christianity. In the first place, it freed the slaves, introduced into the world a morality- Never mind about that! All the texts- Texts, bah! Open up the history books. We know they were falsified by the Jesuits. Charles came in and walked toward the bed. He drew the curtains back slowly. (305) In this piece of dialogue Homais engages in a argument with the priest about religion. This represents the clash in culture during the time between the new science ideas and the conservative ideas of centering life around religion. Homais continues to argue even in the presence of the deceased Emma Bovary. His disregard to the situation at hand shows how he doesnt appear to have any respect towards Madame Bovary. Flaubert creates the satirical conversation between Homais and Bournisien in order to reveal the hypocritical nature of Homais in asserting that he is a religious man but proceeding to denounce the essence of religion. He presents himself as a holy man yet he objects to the statement by the priest that prayer is needed no matter what. Homais claims to admire Christianity but advocates modern ideas including Voltaire and science. Through the dialogue, Homais character is seen once more in negative light as a representation of the middle class. The insensitivity of Homais to t he environment of the deceased is reflected in his insistence in continuing to partake in the squabble with the priest. Homais interrupts and blurts out his own uneducated ideas without giving consideration to the priests words. Another characteristic revealed is in how he disregards the dead in order to win the argument and therefore feel a sense of self-superiority. The childish antics performed by Homais shows the twisted order in his priorities to favor self over the traditional values of respect. As a result of Homais corruption, the moral decay has reached such a deep point in his character that he supports Flauberts intent in depicting the middle class as well as society. Finally, Madame Bovary brings to light Flauberts dissection of society as corrupt and immoral through the character Homais. Throughout the novel Homais perpetrates many unethical actions that displays the mechanics of society through a single person. He reveals his cowardly and corrupt actions which supports the conclusion that his character was essentially devised to be used as a device for Flauberts heavy condemnation towards civilization. The novel also paves way into Flauberts analysis of a specific group, the bourgeoisie, to be equally Madame Bovary reveals the actions that give rise to the decay within the community. Through this manifestation, Flaubert delivers his denunciation of society and the middle class to be impure.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Steinbecks Red Chrysanthemums East of Edens Grapes Essay -- Literary

Every great writer creates powerful images and presents story lines that draw their readers deep into the pages of their books, however; any writer would be hard pressed to do so without incorporating their own feelings, trials and tribulations into the plots and John Steinbeck is no exception. Through his appreciation for adventure and willingness to indulge in it, Steinbeck found a myriad of fascinating people in addition to experiences that he was eager to share. Past various negative criticisms and frequent rejections of his work, he manages to provide relatable characters capable of deep connections to those who enter into the realms of his tales. John Steinbeck's early life experiences influenced his portrayals of women, his love of the land, and his intimate connection to the plight of lower social classes, themes which translate into his work. Initially insecure from teasing in his youth, Steinbeck's delayed sexual progression produced a need for female validation; a theme which presented itself as the characterization of women as sexual objects, particularly prostitutes, in his narratives. Jay Parini, author of "John Steinbeck: A Biography", points out that Steinbeck endured nicknames such as little squirrel, muskrat and mouse from his own family relating to his physical features, which created in him a great propensity for shyness. Physical maturity that lagged behind his schoolmates added to his isolation from his peers, especially women (Parini 17). His friend George Mors disclosed that Steinbeck "spent much of his time with a stack of pulp novels and girlie magazines" demonstrating his desire for sexual stimulation yet insufficient resolve to seek it out (Parini 26). Steinbeck overcame his apprehension after happ... ...ings of the people he met along his way. While some of his works have been praised for their greatness and other discarded as junk, Steinbeck satisfied his need to write and in doing so shared some fantastic stories with the world. Works Cited Parini, Jay. John Steinbeck. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1995. 9,12,13,17,25,26,38. Print. Beyond Boundries. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2002. 15,57,74. Print. John Steinbeck . Chelsea House Publishers, a division of Main Line Book Co., 1987. 92. Print. Readings on John Steinbeck. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1996. 15. Print. Moss, Joyce, and George Wilson. Overview: The Red Pony (1997): n.pag. Library Resource. Web. 9 May 2012. Shillinglaw, Susan. "The Martha Heasley Cox Center for Steinbeck Studies." John Steinbeck, American Writer n.pag. Web. 9 May 2012.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

What Is the Bystander Effect

Rebecca Aspinwall Professor Patrick Shal 11/05/2012 What is The Bystander Effect? Dr's John M Darley and Bibb Latane are both professors of psychology. Even though they have not attended or worked at the same university, their credibility is equally the same. Their award-winning research was gathered to complete their essay â€Å"Why Don't People Help in a Crisis,† they suggest the probability of a bystander helping is correlated to the number of bystanders present. Next Darley and Latane state that, â€Å"there are three things a bystander must do to intervene in an emergency. First the bystander must be aware of the situation, second the bystander has to establish if the situation is an emergency, and then third they have to decide if it is their duty to intervene and help the person in need (141). Darley and Latane have done an exceptional job on informing the reader, however, their research fails to take into account outside variables which may call into question the vali dity of their research. The language used in this essay by Darley and Latane â€Å"Why Don’t People Help in a Crisis† is emotional to say the least.One of the examples used to inform their readers of the bystanders actions demonstrates their use of emotional appeal with language. Making the subjects relive others horrific situations, the authors are able to portray in an emotionally packed explanation of what happened to the victim in each narrative. For example the first victim they mention, is Kitty Genovese, who was murdered in her home in Kew Gardens, New York. Thirty eight of her neighbors watched her die without helping or even calling nine-one-one (140).This emotional technique is effective, because the initial impact of this heinous act grabs the reader’s attention heightening their arousal. The residual effects are intended to make the reader feel sympathy for the victim. Thus taking a more shock and awe approach the authors use emotional language to en gage the reader into the topic. The intended audience is students and professors of psychology, which would constitute an audience whom is well educated with specific psychology erminology and references like â€Å"Apathy† and â€Å"Indifference†, however, the language betrays this notion of a specific audience since it is fairly easily understood among the general population. The authors involve simple phrases like â€Å"lose your cool† or â€Å"sleeping of a drunk† to make the article easy to follow (142). Therefore the author’s intended audience was a highly educated group of the population, however, it was written with the intent to intrigue the general public.Using an ethical approach the authors make the reader self reflect upon their own moral judgment. The authors asked ethical questions that forces the reader to become personally related to the topic, Questions such as â€Å"How can so many people watch another human being in distress and do nothing? ‘ Why don't they help? ‘ We needn't feel guilty, or re-examine ourselves or anything like that. Or should we? † (141). The authors use of moral questions brings the reader to very front line of the topic ethically and has without a doubt a very effective result.The reader is not able to remain an objective party but becomes subjective to the point where they begin to question whether or not they themselves would have the same reactions as the bystanders in the examples or if they would help in an emergency? This moral examination is a good strategy for persuasion, because it engages the reader to become subjective. The authors do a wonderful job in appealing to emotion, by using individual stories of tragic events instead of multiple stories. The authors persuades their readers by giving a face to the victims.As a result the reader becomes emotionally involved in the article and is just what the authors intended to capture their audiences attention. An other persuading technique is the appeal to logic because of the use of inductive reasoning in gathering evidence . The authors experiment with test subjects to find answers as to why bystanders don't help in an emergency? They've drawn a conclusion, from the experiments of the bystanders actions which depends on the number of people around at that time. If the bystander was in a large crowded area the probability of helping a victim in need is slim.But if the bystander is alone than the odds of helping the victim is greater (141). The authors begins the essay with a specific case using Kitty Genovese as an example and then states another specific case with Andrew Mormille (140). Next the authors draws hasty generalizations to conclude that bystanders don't help if they are surrounded by others. Darley and Latane use a sufficient amount of reliable evidence when they use their experiments as a way to explain their theory. Darley and Latane do not give any other information about the experiments, other than stating that there was â€Å"72 college students† (143).But the authors do give information about the test results. One of the experiments used in the essay was completed with 40 people who were paid two dollars each to participate in the research. First the authors used an attractive young woman to lead the test subjects into a room. Then separated them so that the test subjects were alone and had a divider wall between them and the young woman. Next the woman pretends to have an accident and called out for help, seventy percent of the subjects who were alone offered their help .The next experiment they tried was to see if the subjects would offer help if they were paired up with other subjects and the results were drastically different â€Å"8 out of 40† subjects â€Å"offered to help. † and â€Å"the other 32 remained unresponsive† (143). The experiment used in this statement was used in an ethical appeal because most individua ls would like to assume that they would help in a situation like the one mentioned, but given the results the individuals would mostly agree with the authors. The authors don’t give much attention to the possibility to variables that may have changed the dynamics of their research.An example of one of these variables is location. In our popular culture today, people are more susceptible to believe the validity of the research if the location is taken into effect. The bystanders in New York may be different then the bystanders in Minnesota and vice versa. Another example of a variable that could have an effect on the responses of bystanders could be group dynamics such as age, socio-economic status, and many more. Another effective suggestion is if the authors gave the readers examples of ways to improve their behaviors o help people in need instead of stating that bystanders have an â€Å"apparent indifference of others. † and also stating that â€Å"We can choose to see distress and step forward to relive it† (145). This statement would have been more believable if the authors showed examples how to step forward and change the behaviors of not helping. Overall, the authors have done an effective job informing there readers about the probability of a crowded bystander not helping someone in need. The authors used the emotional appeal to capture their readers attention, and used their logical reasoning to convince their readers.This informational essay was published in Arguing Across the Disciplines: A Rhetoric and Reader, because of the eye opening reactions intended for the readers. But the authors don't pay any attention to the variables used in the experiments. For example the location, age and race of the subjects could have made a huge difference in the results. Work Cited Darley, John M. , and Bibb Latane. â€Å"Why People Dont Help in a Crisis. † Arguing Across the disciplines: A Rhetoric and Reader. Ed. Stuart Hirschberg and Terry Hirschberg. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. 140-45. Print

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Whole Foods Market SWOT

Whole Foods Market is one of the largest retailers of organic food products in the world. The company is successful because of its skilful growth strategy, huge product variety, and big profits. Whole Foods Market’s motto is â€Å"Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet†, and this motto, as well as the core values, are very important for the company’s strategy and operating practices. However, the company does not execute the motto completely due to its poor international operations, which is one of the biggest weaknesses of Whole Foods Market. One of the opportunities of the company is the superiority in the market of high demand for the organic products. Increase in the competition in the market is one of the biggest threats for Whole Foods Market.Firm’s StrengthsWhole Foods Market grew from a local market to one of the largest organic product retailer around the world. By 2008, Whole Foods Market operated and owned 276 stores in the United States and in ternationally. The company’s expansion strategy consists mostly of acquisitions of other companies. One of the biggest and most important acquisitions was the acquisition of Wild Oats stores, which gave Whole Foods Market opportunity to operate with large scale stores and with less competition in that segment of market.The company offers a huge variety of products which includes: grocery, bakery, poultry and meat, seafood, deli, wines, cheese, and household products. The regular average size of a Whole Foods Market store is around 45,000 to 60,000 sq ft. In the bigger stores, which size up from 60,000 to 80,000 sq ft, they offer even a bigger variety of products and catering service. Example of this would be the Austin 78,000 sq ft store which included hundreds types of cheese, beers, wines, and seafood items.Whole Foods Market’s revenue was rapidly growing since the early 1990’s with an increase of 30%, and 20% increase since year 2000. By 2007 the company reco rded sales of around $6.6 billion. The revenue growth let the company to continue the expansions and acquisition of many more stores. Whole Foods Market acquired 134 stores since 1991 through 15 acquisitions.Firm’s WeaknessesWhole Foods Market has three stores in Canada, and six stores in the United Kingdom. The possession of such few stores internationally, the company is not able to arrive at the effect of economies of scale in distribution and purchasing. Because of weak operations internationally, the company’s prices are high, therefore lacking the company to compete with other international companies which have a larger operations scale.OpportunitiesWhole Foods Market is in a good market segment because of the rapid growth of demand for the organic products around the world. Consumers tend to slowly start preferring organic products to the regular packaged products. The organic market is growing very fast every year and everywhere around the world. Because of the increase in demand for organic products, which Whole Foods Market supplies, the company is going to experience an increase in sales and revenues.ThreatsSince the market for organic products is becoming more popular and growing, there are more players involved in the market. There are a lot of small companies and huge corporations who are entering the same market as Whole Foods Market, and some of them could be considered a respectful threat. Small supermarkets that supply organic foods, specialty supermarkets and restaurants are the small competitors. Wal-Mart on other hand is a potential strong competitor who announced in 2006 that the company is going to focus on organic segment, and is able to provide the consumers with low price organic products.Strenghts Skilful growth strategy Huge product variety Big profitsWeaknesses Poor international operationsOpportunity Market leadership in high demand marketThreats Increase of Competition

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Eminent Death Essays - Music Industry, The Paz Show, Free Essays

Eminent Death Essays - Music Industry, The Paz Show, Free Essays Eminent Death The Eminent Death During this past summer I experienced real pain and sadness as a result of a loved ones illness and ultimate death which was something I had never had to deal with before. My grandfather, Pappy, had been sick with cancer on and off for ten to fifteen years. He was a very animated, witty man - always sitting in his chair, watching TV, and smoking his cigars, unless he was out playing golf or helping Granny do something around the house. But he would be sure to take the time to show my cousins and my sister and I some new games or toys he had gotten for his computer, or just tell us hysterical stories and jokes whenever we were at their house. I remember being in elementary school and going to see him in the hospital while he was there for chemotherapy. It was weird seeing my Pappy in a hospital bed so helpless, but I was young so I did not think about it. Thankfully he pulled through and was soon back to his old self again. There were other times when he was in and out of the hospital for a while, but my Pappy would always recover. The first to crack a joke at holiday meals or make the grandchildren laugh by putting his bolo tie in his nose during pictures; he loved the attention from his family. As I got into high school, I began to realize that my Pappy was not doing as well and going as strong as I had pictured. One could easily see the gray streaks coming in to his hair, turning it from a dark brown to a sort of salt and pepper look, and finally to a light gray. He began to resort to the use of a cane when walking around. My parents never really informed what was happening, just that he was not doing well or in the hospital or had worsened in his condition. At the end of my senior year and the beginning of the summer, things began to get really bad. I saw my dad and my uncle becoming the parent to my grandfather, and him becoming the child. It is one of those things that you hear about happening, but it does not click in your head until you actually experience it. My grandmother would call my dad to hurry over at least once a week because he had fallen and she was not able to help or he had another sort of accident that she was not capable of handling herself. I remember coming home from school one day and my father told me that Pappy was in the hospital and that I needed to go visit him because he was going to die soon. I did not know what to think about that except that I had to get over there fast. I went with my mother and it tore me apart inside to see my grandfather in that state. He had been sick the whole night before throwing up blood and my grandmother had rushed him to the hospital as soon as possible. Lying there, in the hospital bed, with all these cords and tests running through him - this was my grandfather. After a day or so the hospital released him and life went on, but he kept getting worse and worse. Summer began and I had a time-consuming job at the pool as a swim team coach, a swim instructor, and a lifeguard. I tried to go over to visit my grandparents as much as possible because I knew that Pappy would not make it much longer. One day as I returned home from work my mother told me that Pappy had a new tumor. He was going to have to get a MRI to find out whether it was benign or malignant. When my grandmother had taken him to the hospital, the doctors would not allow her to be in the room with him during the MRI. This caused Pappy to have a panic attack and not be able to complete the tests. All the doctors knew was that there was a tumor on his

Monday, October 21, 2019

buy custom Life with and without Internet essay

buy custom Life with and without Internet essay Internet technologies broke into our life so quickly and steadily that we took them for granted not even thinking about the dramatic changes they would bring to our society. Without a doubt internet changed the quality of our life for better but nowadays most of us are aware of the negative consequences of the recent decades technology breakthrough. Many people remember their life without internet with nostalgia understanding that many things changed irretrievably. Present-day internet technologies made our lives much easier. Using internet we can study, communicate, shop, play games, and even work staying at home and it helps us save our time and resources significantly. We can get access to any information we need in a matter of seconds. But at the same time people become overloaded with big amounts of data which often turns out to be completely useless. So usually we spend our saved time ineffectively processing needless information and filtering it. Living without internet people spent much more time and resources on completing tasks which now seem for us so easy to do. They could get new information only from books, periodicals, television or cmmunicating with each other. All this required time and efforts. But that time was spent effectively. People got less information, but it was meaningful and useful. They made many efforts which are not necessary today, but those efforts made their lives more active and interesting. Internet created the illusion of easy communication. Indeed, anytime we want to reach anybody of our friends or relatives we can go online and easily get in touch with them. A lot of means of communication are at our disposal: writing instant messages and e-mails, making videocalls, sending files Of course, it helps us to be closer to those people who are far away, but at the same time we become estranged from our families and friends who live not a hundred miles away. Not so long ago when we could only dream of online communication we spent much more time with our friends and families, the relations were more sincere and lively. We didnt need such intermediaries as computer monitors to communicate with people, there were no artificial barriers between us and persons we were talking to. But the most dramatic changes internet brought to our way of thinking and nnot the way of living. People who got accustomed to internet acquire new information much easier, they can quickly switch from one topic to another, they are flexible and mobile. But at the same time they cant concentrate on something one, they are inattentive, they lost their ability to read long texts and to keep in mind some information for a long time - if they dont know something they always can find all the answers online, there is no need to keep everything in mind. When people didnt have internet at their disposal they were more concentrated on what they were actually interested in, they were more consistent and erudite as they didnt have such an easy and quick access to information so they had to remember everything. Not having had computers they could count only on their knowledge. As we can see, life with internet nowadays differs a lot from the life without World Wide Web as it was a couple of decades ago. Our world changes, lifestyle changes, people and their relations change. We have to accept all innovations to keep pace with time but let us look back at the past every once in a while in order not to loose all the good things we had before. Buy custom Life with and without Internet essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Explore the Local Group of Galaxies

Explore the Local Group of Galaxies Our planet orbits a star inhabiting an immense spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. We can see the Milky Way as part of our night sky. It looks like a faint band of light running through the sky. From our vantage point, its tough to tell that were actually inside a galaxy, and that conundrum had astronomers puzzled until the early years of the 20th Century. In the 1920s, astronomers discussed strange spiral nebulae they were seeing in photographic plates. Theyd been known to exist since at least the mid 1800s, when Lord Rosse (William Parsons) began finding these objects through his telescope. By the early 20th century, some scientists held the view that these spirals are simply part of our own galaxy. Others maintained that they are individual galaxies outside the Milky Way. When Edwin P. Hubble observed a variable star in a distant spiral nebula and measured its distance, he discovered its galaxy was not part of our own. It was a momentous finding and led to the discovery of other galaxies in our nearby neighborhood, including the members of the Local Group. An artists concept of what our galaxy looks like from outside. Note the bar across the center and the two main arms, plus smaller ones. NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESO/R. Hurt The Milky Way is one of about fifty galaxies in the group. Its not the largest spiral; that would be the Andromeda Galaxy. There are also many smaller ones, including oddly shaped  Large Magellanic Cloud and its sibling the Small Magellanic Cloud, along with some dwarfs in elliptical shapes. The Local Group members are bound together by their mutual gravitational attraction and they stick together quite well. Most galaxies in the universe are  accelerating away from us, driven by the action of dark energy, but  the Milky Way and the rest of the Local Group family are close enough together that they stick together through the force of gravity. A graphical representation of the Local Group of galaxies, including our own. It contains at least 54 individual members. Antonio Ciccolella, CC BY-SA 4.0 Local Group Stats Each galaxy in the Local Group has its own size, shape, and defining characteristics. The galaxies in the Local group take up a region of space about 10 million light-years across. And, the group is actually part of an even larger group of galaxies known as the Local Supercluster. It contains many other groups of galaxies, including the Virgo Cluster, which lies about 65 million light-years away. The Major Players of the Local Group There are two galaxies that dominate the local group: our host galaxy, the Milky Way, and the Andromeda galaxy. It lies some two and a half million light-years away from us. Both are barred spiral galaxies and almost all of the other galaxies in the local group are bound gravitationally to one or the other, with a few exceptions. Andromeda and the Milky Way are the two largest members of the local group. In the distant future, they will be colliding. This artists concept shows that collision from the point of view of a planet in the Milky Way. Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger Milky Way Satellites The galaxies that are bound to the Milky Way galaxy include a number of dwarf galaxies, which are smaller stellar cities that have spherical or irregular shapes. They include: Sagittarius Dwarf GalaxyLarge and Small Magellanic CloudsCanis Major DwarfUrsa Minor DwarfDraco DwarfCarina DwarfSextans DwarfSculptor DwarfFornax DwarfLeo ILeo IIUrsa Major I DwarfUrsa Major II Dwarf Andromeda Satellites The galaxies that are bound to the Andromeda galaxy are: M32M110NGC 147NGC 185Andromeda IAndromeda IIAndromeda IIIAndromeda IVAndromeda VAndromeda VIAndromeda VIIAndromeda VIIIAndromeda IXAndromeda XAndromeda XIAndromeda XIIAndromeda XIIIAndromeda XIVAndromeda XVAndromeda XVIAndromeda XVIIAndromeda XVIIIAndromeda XIXAndromeda XXTriangulum Galaxy (third-largest galaxy in the local group)Pisces Dwarf (unclear if it is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy or the Triangulum Galaxy) Other Galaxies in the Local Group There some oddball galaxies in the Local Group that may not be gravitationally bound to either the Andromeda or the Milky Way galaxies. Astronomers generally lump them together as part of the neighborhood, although they are not official members of the Local Group.   The galaxies NGC 3109, Sextans A and the Antlia Dwarf all appear to be gravitationally interacting but are otherwise unbound to any other galaxies. This member of the Local Group is called NGC 3109, as seen by the Galaxy Explorer spacecraft. It may be interacting with another nearby galaxy. NASA/GALEX   There are other nearby galaxies that do not seem to be interacting with any of the above groups of galaxies. They include some nearby dwarfs and irregulars. Others are being cannibalized by the Milky Way in an ongoing cycle of growth that all galaxies experience.   Galactic Mergers Galaxies in close proximity to each other can interact in colossal  mergers if conditions are right. Their gravitational pull on each other leads to a close interaction or an actual merger. Some galaxies mentioned here have and will continue to change over time precisely because they are locked in gravitational dances with each other. As they interact they can rip each other apart. This action - the dance of the galaxies -   significantly alters their shapes. In some cases, the collisions end up with one galaxy absorbing another. In fact, the Milky Way is in the process of cannibalizing a number of dwarf galaxies.   A group of interacting galaxies as seen by Hubble Space Telescope. NASA/ESA/STScI The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies will continue to eat up other galaxies as time goes by. This appears to be what has happened to create most (if not all) of the galaxies we see today. In the distant past, smaller ones merged to become larger ones. Large spirals then merge and create ellipticals. Its a sequence that has been observed throughout the evolution of the universe. Will Mergers in the Local Group Affect Earth? Certainly the ongoing mergers will continue to reshape the Local Group galaxies, changing their shapes and sizes. The ongoing evolution of galaixes will almost certainly affect the Milky Way, even as it goes about gobbling up smaller galaxies. For example, theres some evidence the Magellanic Clouds might merge with the Milky Way. And, in the distant future  Andromeda and the Milky Way will collide to create a large elliptical galaxy that astronomers have nicknamed Milkdromeda. This collision will commence in a few billion years and radically alter the shapes of both galaxies as the gravitational dance commences. Fast Facts: The Local Group The Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies.The Local Group has at least 54 members.The largest member of the Local Group is the Andromeda Galaxy. Sources Frommert, Hartmut, and Christine Kronberg. â€Å"The Local Group of Galaxies.†Ã‚  Messiers Telescopes,, NASA,â€Å"The Universe within 5 Million Light YearsThe Local Group of Galaxies.†Ã‚  The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram, Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Purposes Essential in the Present Management Function Research Paper

The Purposes Essential in the Present Management Function - Research Paper Example The leaders in a firm also possess the ability to motivate people in accomplishing the dream. They also keep the staff focused on elevating the firm to attain its objectives while inspiring them in conquering whatever obstructions they meet. Conversely, management intended for recruitment, resources, and predetermined short-term aims for personnel to make sure productivity as well as giving the direction of achieving the long-term objectives. Teamwork is a virtue all contemporary leaders struggle to achieve. Furthermore, making a team depicts showing an elevated degree of trust that a majority of enterprising people in the agency are disinclined to offer. Leadership gives the vision, whereas the team gives the trail and course on the manner to reach there. Scrutiny of administration or rather management looks to manage by the employment of fear in addition to, tasks being rigidly outlined. Additionally, management wheels the course as well as giving the trail, rules, and wherewithal to attain the firm’s goal. Many articulate that, the dissimilarity between being a director and that of a leader is that directing is perceived in matters of career whilst leadership is a vocation or talent. As a leader, an individual should possess plainly distinct assurances and most outstandingly, the audacity of one’s assurances to observe them come into realism. Effectual skills in leadership are nurtured and polished by time, incidents, and a factual need to be more than being a manager, but actualize in being a factual leader. A question is asked on the directors and leaders role in the present day environment.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Critical Perspectives on Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Critical Perspectives on Management - Essay Example Taking its roots from poststructuralism, which posits that there is "no central meaning in texts," deconstruction has been used as a new method to understand and interpret human resource changes and behavior in organisations today. Its usefulness stems from the fact that it generates multiple perspectives, or ways, in which the manager can best assess the nature of the organisation's human resources. The ability of deconstruction to look into a subject or object in different ways is useful not only in decision-making processes, but also in the implementation of these decisions within the organisation. This paper discusses the role that deconstruction plays in the contemporary organisation, influencing its very nature and processes. Drawing from both theoretical and practical applications of deconstruction as applied in the business perspective, specifically in business organisations, I discuss and analyze the presence of the "Other" in organisations when applied under the deconstructionist perspective. Moreover, in addition to identifying the presence of the Other, the development of the behavior of openness and uncertainty when the manager encounters a posstructuralist interpretation is also analyzed. Finally, the relevance and significance of deconstruction per se, and the application of deconstruction in the business organisation are integrated in the final part of the analysis, integrating both theory and application to understand the nature and dynamics of the contemporary organisation. II. The theoretical foundation of deconstruction To better understand the practical use of deconstruction in business organisations, its theoretical foundations must first be investigated. Deconstruction takes its root from poststructuralism. As a sociological thought, poststructuralism "deny that there is any central meaning in texts," a thesis that also adopts the assumption that there is no universal truth or way of interpreting objects or subjects that people experience in their everyday lives. Theoretically, deconstruction "shows that whatever meaning is derived is wrong. Since there is an unending set of possible meanings in any text, there can be no central or true meaning at all" (Littlejohn, 1999:223). These claims are developed from the increasing need of academicians and social scientists to know the limit at which knowledge-building and development have reached since the advent of modernism. Deconstruction as a new perspective in the schools of thought extant provides humanity with the opportunity to further improve and develop the knowledge that we have. The pursuit of "truth" is no longer achieved by gaining an in-depth knowledge of the phenomena that trigger humanity's curiosity, but rather, truth is now discovered by knowing the wide range of knowledge available to us humans, whether this knowledge is only at the most basic level. That is, knowledge production is no longer intensive, but rather extensive and diverse, as posited by deconstruction. Other theoretical explanations on deconstruction are, at best, descriptive in nature. Take as an example Bennington's elucidation of deconstru

The importance of water filtration systems Research Paper

The importance of water filtration systems - Research Paper Example I once visited a friend in another neighborhood and thought that their water is usually purified just like ours. I therefore went ahead and drank water from the cistern without the knowledge that water from the cistern in their neighborhood is not meant for drinking but for farming purposes. After several minutes, I began feeling ill; I vomited and later on started to diarrhea. I was taken to the hospital and treated and eventually my health resumed to normal after three days. It is the worst experience I have ever had in my life. I would not wish any other person to have such an experience ever. This can only be possible if there are drinking water filtration systems in water sources in all neighborhoods. Water filtration systems are of significant importance. Water is very essential for human survival. On average, the human body is more than 70 percent water. Vital systems and organs including liver, brain and blood are over 80 percent water. This illustrates the fact that human be ings, to a large degree, are what they drink. The importance of water in human body is underlined by the role that water plays especially as regards every chemical reaction (Gertsen and Linus 16). Water aids in absorption of food, digestion, regulation of body temperature, carrying nutrients to cells, blood circulation, and excretion of wastes among others. In addition, water cushions body joints and protect organs and tissues from damage and shock. Conversely, when human body dehydrates or lack water, it can cause many ailments. Extreme dehydration can aggravate or cause many problems such as allergies, migraine headaches, asthma, and hypertension. It is not enough to have water; the water must be pure and uncontaminated for human consumption. Contaminated water is the cause of numerous degenerative diseases, as well as neurological illnesses such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, depression, Attention Deficit Disorder, and anxiety among others (Coca-Prados and Gemma 44). Considering th e important role of water in the functioning of all body systems and organs, its purity is the most essential and basic key to proper human health and longevity. There are various methods of ensuring that drinking water is pure and safe for human consumption including filtration, use of chemical disinfectant, and boiling of water (Omelchenko, Alexander and Swindall 9). Filtration using water filtration systems has proved to be one of the most common methods of purifying water. These systems facilitate filtration of water thereby removing particles from water as the water filters or passes through the systems. There are three methods used in water filtration systems. The first one is sediment filtration that removes clay, impurities, and sand from the water. The second one is carbon filtration that is used in reducing poor taste, chemical quantities, chlorine odor, as well as other pollutants. The third method is reverse osmosis, which entails removing several impurities from water s uch as turbidity, salts, chlorine, and dissolved solids, as well as bacteria and many dissolved organics. Reverse osmosis is considered the most effective of the three filtration methods (Gertsen and Linus 52). So, what is the importance of water filtration systems? These systems entail processes that kill germs, bacteria, or virus in the water and which has the potential of causing

Critical Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Critical Reflection - Essay Example This proved to be the magic bullet, as the woman was not readmitted to the hospital, and gradually got better as her med compliance helped her overcome her acute mania symptoms and consistent outpatient therapy alleviated these symptoms as well. I was called to meet with a 33-year-old woman, who had a young son, in a psychiatric facility as a part of the crisis response team attending to this womans case. The woman has bi-polar disorder and was in acute mania. She had crashed her car, then was taken away by police escort to the psychiatric facility because her estranged husband had called the police after her accident, having recognized the signs of acute mania in this woman. At the time she was admitted to the hospital she was incoherent and did not know where she was or why she was there. She had no recollection of the accident, and, if asked if she felt that she was a danger to herself or others, she had ranted that she wished that she were dead, and she was afraid that she had killed her son, even though the son was not in the car at the time of the accident. The woman had been hospitalized five times before for acute mania. I was assigned to her case as a part of the team that was in charge of helping her assimilate into the outside world from the hospital. The first time that she was in the hospital, everything went relatively smoothly upon discharge, although I had some concerns because the woman was not 100% even then. However, the woman had stabilized, with the help of the medication that she was provided in the hospital. The woman had a place to stay at a friends house. I had a meeting with the friend to make sure that it was a healthy environment for this woman, and found the friend stable, intelligent and patient. The friend was willing to let this woman stay at her house until she stabilized completely and

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 10

Politics - Essay Example In a republic, citizens give up their right by electing one person to represent their interests. Madison argues that a pure democracy cannot cure the mischief of faction which includes: instability, injustice and confusion. He refers to a faction as â€Å"a number of citizens comprising majority or minority of whole, united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or interest, adversed to rights of other citizens or to the permanent and aggregate interests of community† (Federalist 10). Human beings have different views and opinions which impact on how the government is run. Those with similar interests form a faction or a political party that criticizes the government on various issues such as taxation. The most common source of faction according to Madison is the various and unequal distribution of property. Legislators do try to regulate the differing interests but since they also have their own interests, they tend to pursue own ends at the expense of common good. The most powerful faction in the end gets its interests secured whether they are just or unjust. Since the cause of faction (human nature) cannot be removed, Madison argues that the government can only control its effects. This can be resolved using the Republican principle of majority wins or takes it all but this can only work if the ruling party is the majority in Congress. In a pure democracy, all citizens assemble to administer government in person hence it is not possible to reconcile the different interests; it has no checks and balances to control obnoxious individuals. Furthermore, it is short lived hence cannot secure personal security or property rights. The Republican government on the other hand, involves representatives hence has checks and balances. A representative comes from a district and represents the interests of constituents from that locality hence it is hard for him to pursue own interests. If he does so,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Bible Dictionary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Bible Dictionary - Essay Example The key themes that the letter embraces is the criticism of following the Jewish law, significance of faith that unites both Gentiles and Jews, the need to keep strong in faith as it is the only way to salvation. One would make not mistake suggesting that the purpose of the letter is to make a clear distinction between Christianity as a new religious tradition and Judaism or Judeo-Christianity that was popular at the time. In addition to that, the epistle in question shares some details about the past of Paul: he talks about his conversion, the acquaintance with Peter, his apostolic mission. Other then Peter, the author also mentions some other Christian communities in Europe as well as other nations that he encountered during his journey. Philemon was one of the early Christians who dwelled in Asia Minor. He was born in the first decade of the first century of Common Era and died when he was sixty eight. There are no detailed dates of his life. It is thought that Philemon was born in the city of Colossae. When Paul the Apostle was on his mission Philemon was able to meet the saint and the latter converted him into Christianity. One should note that Philemon was a rather wealthy Christian which allowed him to give shelter other Christians. That is why the latter were always welcome in his house which served as a church too. However, in the end of his life he and his wife Apphia were killed by the Gentiles which made them glorious martyrs. Being a hospitable Christian, Philemon was able to meet not only Paul the Apostle, but also other less known Christians. In addition to that, it was not only his wife, but also Archippus and Onesimus who were killed by the Gentiles. That is why all these four individuals are thought be martyrs as they suffered a horrible death for Jesus Christ. Speaking of the legacy, one should note that Philemon was a prominent Christian, as Paul the Apostle

Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 10

Politics - Essay Example In a republic, citizens give up their right by electing one person to represent their interests. Madison argues that a pure democracy cannot cure the mischief of faction which includes: instability, injustice and confusion. He refers to a faction as â€Å"a number of citizens comprising majority or minority of whole, united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or interest, adversed to rights of other citizens or to the permanent and aggregate interests of community† (Federalist 10). Human beings have different views and opinions which impact on how the government is run. Those with similar interests form a faction or a political party that criticizes the government on various issues such as taxation. The most common source of faction according to Madison is the various and unequal distribution of property. Legislators do try to regulate the differing interests but since they also have their own interests, they tend to pursue own ends at the expense of common good. The most powerful faction in the end gets its interests secured whether they are just or unjust. Since the cause of faction (human nature) cannot be removed, Madison argues that the government can only control its effects. This can be resolved using the Republican principle of majority wins or takes it all but this can only work if the ruling party is the majority in Congress. In a pure democracy, all citizens assemble to administer government in person hence it is not possible to reconcile the different interests; it has no checks and balances to control obnoxious individuals. Furthermore, it is short lived hence cannot secure personal security or property rights. The Republican government on the other hand, involves representatives hence has checks and balances. A representative comes from a district and represents the interests of constituents from that locality hence it is hard for him to pursue own interests. If he does so,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

DNA - Genetically modified food Essay Example for Free

DNA Genetically modified food Essay Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions. Genetic traits from outside a species gene pool, in the tomatos case from an arctic fish, can be spliced into the organism to create an entirely different species, a transgenic organism with the typical traits of a tomato and frost resistance from a fish. The most widely used method of gene splicing, recombinant DNA, uses biochemical scissors called restriction enzymes to cut the strings of DNA, selecting required genes. These are then ferried by a virus or a bacterium that infects the host, smuggling the gene into the plants DNA. In this way scientists have been able to create slow ripening and seedless fruit, crops that grow in unfavourable conditions and are resistant to disease or herbicides and milk from cows given a genetically engineered growth hormone. The benefits of gene technology in terms of food production are enormous. The most common genetically engineered crops contain modifications that make the plants resistant to certain diseases and herbicides, or allow them to produce their own pesticides, thereby eliminating or reducing the need to spray. So-called Bt corn, for example, contains a gene resistant to the harmful mycotoxin fungus and herbicide producers, Monsanto have created a strain of soybeans genetically modified to be unaffected by their product Roundup. The soybean farmer therefore can avoid targeting specific weeds and require just one application of a general weed-killer, reducing costs and agricultural waste run-off. Genetically modified crops are also being adapted to grow in salty, dry or frosty environments, contain edible vaccines, have a longer shelf life and be more nutritious. A group of Swiss and German scientists recently developed a strain of GM rice know as ? golden rice due to its altered colour. Containing genes that produce a unusually high amount of beta-carotene (vitamin A), this rice could be a solution to the thousands of poor children in Asia who eat little but rice and go blind or die from lack of vitamin A Public reaction to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering however has been mixed. Sliding US export commodities such as genetically modified soybeans and corn have highlighted hardened public opinion and widespread resistance to biotech crops, especially in the European Union. Concerns about GM foods fall into three categories: economics, environmental hazards and human health risks. The latter two have been the subject of hot debate, both in Australia and overseas. Environmental damage from GM crops can be caused through various channels. One of the main concerns has been the possibility of gene transfer to a non-target species, that is crops engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds cross-breeding, resulting in the transfer of the herbicide resistance to create ? superweeds. In addition, environmentalists fear that transgenic plants may proliferate rapidly, pollinating natural plants in their surroundings eliminating existing species. Further environmental suspicions include those of unintended harm to other organisms (especially non-target insects) and of the reduced effectiveness of pesticides once insects become tolerant to a crops natural pesticide. Questions have also been raised on the human impact of genetically modified organisms. Critics of recombinant DNA fear that the pathogenic, or disease-producing organisms used in some recombinant DNA experiments might develop extremely infectious forms that could cause worldwide epidemics. Likewise, the unknown effect of foreign genes introduced into GM food crops in terms of human health also presents a controversial issue. Furthermore, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may create a new allergen or cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. A proposal to incorporate a gene from Brazil nuts into soybeans in order to increase their nutritional value was abandoned when it was found that the genetically engineered soybeans caused an allergic reaction in people sensitive to Brazil nuts. For these reasons, extensive testing and labelling of GM foods may be required to avoid the possibility of harm to consumers with food allergies. Biotechnology has started to revolutionise food production, with fantastic results. With the world population of 6 billion expected to double in the next 50 years and an adequate food supply becoming a major challenge it will no doubt continue to do so in the future.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Environmental Issues Facing Future Of European Car Industry Marketing Essay

Environmental Issues Facing Future Of European Car Industry Marketing Essay The European Car industry has been continuously evolving from its early years. The world economic recession leading up to World War II led to strengthening of the uneven automobile manufacturing market, while in the postwar period, improved economic growth, marketing, and an expanding road structures increased sales for auto manufacturers in many developed countries. Design, service, and speed became trademarks of the thriving car producers, as evidenced by the every growing range of car models and the increasing popularity of Formula 1 racing all over Europe. In todays modern society the car industry is beginning to show signs of struggle due to the challenges that the industry faces in the new era. Issues such as congestion, rising oil prices, traffic jams and air pollution are some of the reasons that have forced the car makers to rethink its marketing, its goals, its objectives, and all the other unforeseen consequences. In total car makers produce almost 60 million vehicles every year, and provide employment to millions and millions of people all over the world. Average profits have been on a decrease from 20% or more in its first days of the 1920s to nearly 10% in the 1960s and way less than 5% in this present day. In fact some volume car makers such as Fiat, GM, and Ford all have actually been losing money. EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY The European industry is the worlds largest car manufacturing region and the worlds largest market. In addition to that the industry is considered a leader in the worldwide market, with incorporated operations consisting of design, research, development, production and sales (BERA 2004). The market is made up of a concentrated and refined universal network, which includes different joint-ventures, special productions, many cooperatives, and assembly sites. European car manufacturers have a combined productivity that exceeds that of the United States and Japan; but no one single European manufacturer produces more than its Japanese or United States competitor (BERA 2004). There are more than 20 vehicle producers in Europe, with the largest carmakers producing numerous brands, such as VW, GM, Fiat, DaimlerChrysler, and Peugeot Citroen (McLaughlin, Maloney 1999, p. 193). There are also independent carmakers, such as Porsche, BMW and Baritone (McLaughlin, Maloney 1999, p. 193). The vehicle production of the European automotive industry has shown a great increase over the last 10 years. According to recent studies the largest car manufacturing country in Europe is Germany which is estimated at 30% of regions total production, followed by France at 19%, than Spain at 17% and UK at 10% (BERA 2004). Similar to the other markets in the global car industry trade, European industry has undergone an important restructuring, consolidation and reorganization, which comprises of mergers, such as Chrysler and Daimler-Benz, General Motors acquisition of Saab, BMWs hostile take over and then sale of Rover, Jaguar and Volvos passenger car division are now all under Ford, Volkswagens acquisition of Lamborghini, Bentley, SEAT and Skoda (McLaughlin, Maloney 1999, p. 193). Presently there are many other supply arrangements and co-production efforts amongst the European carmakers and other manufacturers all over the globe. Trends and issues in Europe: Increasing challenges Sustainable development for European Car industry requires sufficient and capable, economically feasible, socially adequate and environmentally sound transport systems (UNDESA 2010, p.1). Urban population is growing rapidly, in particular in the developing countries such as Turkey, Poland, Croatia and Ukraine. By 2050, two-thirds of people will live in mega-cities and other urban areas. Cities in developing countries urgently need better and affordable public urban transport systems (UNDESA 2010, p.2). With increasing income and prosperity many city dwellers aspire to own their own motor vehicles. Rapidly growing use of private motor vehicles and of freight transport, limited space and inadequate infrastructure result in urban traffic congestion, lost time, wasted resources, polluted air and negative health impacts through emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds and particulates, including black carbon (UNDESA 2010, p.2). Motorized transport depends almost entirely on oil products for its energy needs. Many developing countries are energy importers. Inefficient use of motor fuel in congested urban transport imposes unnecessary costs on countries, which can contribute to foreign trade imbalances and hamper economic development (UNDESA 2010, p.2). At present, the transport sector is responsible for almost a quarter of greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuel sources worldwide. It is the fastest growing sector with respect to green house gas emissions, yet is has received so far little attention from international climate initiatives and support programmes. For increasing resource productivity in transport, both for passenger and freight transport, a comprehensive approach is required that seeks (UNDESA 2010, p.2): to avoid or reduce transport demand, where possible, to encourage a shift towards less polluting and more efficient transport modes, and to improve and deploy clean transport technologies. EXISTING LITERATURE REVIEWED The automobile sector, is very important in the European economy, but is currently facing a number of problems. The lack of funding creates difficulties for the consumer to finance the purchase of a new car. European markets are also in overcapacity, and the evolution towards an aging and a no car society is predictable on the structural long-term (EJCIC 2009, p.4). To address these issues European Union has adopted a number of policies as well. To finance the sector in the short-term, to elaborate short-term schemes to favour demand, to restructure the sector on the long term, also to finance RD and clean cars, and finally to improve traffic flow and promote efficient use of transportation (EJCIC 2009, p.4). The car industry is one of the main manufacturing sectors in the Europe and remains important in terms of production, wealth and jobs: it produces 15 to 18 million cars a year, about 1/3 of the world production, and employs directly and indirectly 12 million people (EJCIC 2009, p.4). Many suppliers depend on the automobile industry (steel, aluminum, plastic, glass, textile industries, etc.) and its investments in RD benefit also to other sectors (EJCIC 2009, p.4). Once a symbol of social and industrial development, the automotive industry is now facing a multitude of severe challenges: fight against climate change, oil price volatility and the financial and economic crisis that has caused a significant decline in demand and, therefore, jobs (EJCIC 2009, p.11). Automotive industry is considered as a vital sector for growth and competitiveness in the EU, and it figures prominently on the political agendas of the European Commission (EJCIC 2009, p.11). THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND MARKETING The business environment of the firm or an industry consists of all the external influences that affect its function, decision making and its performance. When given the measureless number and range of external influences, how can companies expect to analyze, let alone monitor, environmental situation? This organizing of information can be done by using some form of system or framework. Environmental influences can be classified by PEST analysis into political, economic, social, and technological factors (Grant 2005, p.68). Also environmental influences can be sorted by the micro-environment or task environment that can be distinguished from the wider influences that form the macro-environment (Grant 2005, p.68). Although systematized and constant scanning of the entire range of external influences is always desirable by most companies in the industry, such extensive environmental analysis is expensive, because it creates an excess of information (Grant 2005, p.68). The condition for efficient environmental analysis is to differentiate the vital information from the information that is less important. To do this, we must look at primary principles of most companies (Grant 2005, p.68). In order for the firm to make profit it must first create value for its customers. Thats why; it must understand its consumers. Second, in creating value, the firm must acquire goods and services from suppliers. Thats why; the firm must have a good understanding of its suppliers with whom they should form good business relationships. Third, the capability to generate income from value creating activity entirely depends on the intensity of rivalry amongst firms that compete for the same value creating opportunities. Thats why, the firm must be aware of competition. Hence, the core of the industrys business environment is formed by the relationships that the firms in the industry have with three sets of players: customers, suppliers, and competitors (Grant 2005, p.68). These make up the industry environment. At the same time one cannot say that macro-level factors are unimportant to environmental analysis. Macro-level factors consist of general changes in demographic structure, economic or social and political trends (Grant 2005, p.68). These factors are also critical determinants of the threats and opportunities companies in the industry will face in the near future. The main concern is how these more general environmental factors affect the firms industry environment. Strategically speaking the threat of global warming, for most industries, will not be an important issue, at least not for next few hundred years (Grant 2005, p.68). However for European car industry, the implications of global warming are a vital issue because of restrictions on burning fossil fuel and rising taxes on oil. To analyze the strategic implications of global warming, the automobile manufacturers need to trace its implications for the industry environment (Grant 2005, p.69): What will be the impact on demand, will consumers favor more fuel-efficient cars or will there be a shift from gasoline-powered to electrically powered vehicles? Will there be substitution of public transportation for private transportation? Will there be new entry by manufacturers of electric vehicles into the car industry? Will the heavy RD costs associated with adapting cars to the new environmental challenge cause the industry to consolidate? P.E.S.T. A technique thats used to identify, assess and evaluate external factors affecting the performance of firm in the industry is known as PEST analysis (Gregory 2004 p.49). PEST analysis is done to help an organisation gain knowledge and understanding of the broader business environment and may be carried out as part of a continuous process of environmental scanning (Campbell, Stonehouse Houston 2002, p.118). PEST analysis may be used to evaluate firms expansion into a new market or to evaluate the feasibility of a new product or service (Campbell, Stonehouse Houston 2002, p.118). There are a large number of factors that may be included into PEST analysis, few of which are outlined below. Political factors Political and legal factors play a critical role on the development of any industry. Political and legal factors shape the rules of rivalry, supply chain requirements and operational costs (Jones 2010). International instability has led to an increase of oil prices that has created a sturdy trend towards smaller engines, hybrid engines as well as lighter diesel engines (Jones 2010). Present high level of oil prices has damaged the sales of larger engine-sized cars that are more then two litres in capacity, most of which are luxury and premium vehicles. There are also various quality controls and operation requirements for safety standards and emission levels that have a negative impact on the costs of production which in turn reduce the operating profit margin of companies (Jones 2010). A new legislation for car parking has been implemented in various European countries due to the threat of high congestion with the extreme traffic load of road networks. The foreign ownership regulations also form a part of political and legal factors. Currently the UK, France and Spain are considered as one of the most FDI welcoming countries in Europe. Automotive industry is being deregulated, which means that foreign car makers have a flexibility of choosing between various entries into the market and expansion modes in doing business with European companies (Jones 2010). The political relations between countries of operations imply certain benefits in a form of reduced tariff and non-tariff barriers, for example India and Japan work together with the UK within the regime of favorability (Jones 2010). Economic factors The countrys present and future demand situation is one of the most important determinants of location, because demand influences operations margin, the pricing strategy of the product, potential growth of the market, and the potential of return on investment (Jones 2010). Since early 2000s the target market size in Europe has experienced steady growth by size and value. There has been growth in size as every day current car parking capacity is being increased. The steady increase of average price level of parking contributed to the growth of market value (Jones 2010). European market is viewed as extremely mature. The present maturity has led to the overcapacity issue and an evident drop in sales of particular car segments. In general due to the maturity issue the market is experiencing negative growth. Even so, there is still an enormous significant growth potential for the sales of certain car segments due to the impact of technological factor as well as socio-cultural factors (Jones 2010). The strong growth of GDP, personal disposable income and consumer expenditures reveal the soaring level of consumer confidence. But when looking at the purchase of new cars, consumer confidence has fallen a lot. Nowadays consumers in Europe have been very unwilling to take out new debt and instead been choosing to service their existing debt. Also there has been a decline in the levels of mortgage equity withdrawal, which indicates that European consumers do not seek other funds to buy pricey items like cars (Jones 2010). The current strong position of Euro against other currencies has created many benefits for manufacturers consumers operating in Euro zone such as certainty of operations and reduced currency fluctuation risk. When highlighting the outlook of the automakers industry, it is evident that one of the key concerns with establishing and maintaining the competitive advantage is the cost factor, to be more specific, it is the ability of the firm to manage its direct and indirect costs (Jones 2010). Furthermore, when a decision has to be made with regard to the location of operations and the establishments of factories, industry specialists say that the key determinant here is labour-specific costs. A major emphasis is being put on the labour-specific cost saving (Jones 2010). According to the survey, more than 85% of industry specialists agreed that not only in Europe but all over the world, in the next coming five years there will be a very big increase in labour specific costs, such as legal services, cost of pensions and medical benefits for the employees (Jones 2010). According to predictions as the target market for car makers, the attractiveness of Europe will stay high (Jones 2010). The reason why European region will remain attractive for car makers is the potential increase of its market size and value, due to the expansion of the European Union and their strong currency. There are however suggestions that the share of markets in Europe will drop, because of the present maturity of the market, excessive competition and the demand trend. Social factors Whenever social factors are discussed the key factor that always comes to mind is a demographic factor, because it involves the lifestyle, the trend and the spending power of the consumer. The type of risk aversive behavior and value per customer all fall under a demographic factor (Jones 2010). The use of particular type of products and its projections can be determined by looking at the status of demographic trends. For example, the sales of family cars have been damaged by the current European demographics. The changes of routines, lifestyles and habits have a direct impact on the consumer spending. For instance, there has been a recent increase in preferences for secondhand car ownership instead of brand new vehicles. Additionally, the impact of trend factors such as fashion ability and luxury preferences can be so strong that it can remove and neglect the negative effects of oil prices and maturity of the market in some car segments (Jones 2010). Thats why, despite the predictio ns, luxury cars and many SUVs can experience strong growth, while the sales in other car segments experience dramatic fall. Technological factors New transactional capabilities are now open with the current development of Internet. Continuous development and growth of technological solutions, particularly in the area of digital technologies and communication create fresh operating opportunities such as innovative marketing mix channels, latest market research tools along with new purchase environment known as e-commerce (Jones 2010). To counter the problem of overcapacity, a number of leading car distributors make use of e-commerce. There e-exchange channels linking supply chain agents have undergone major improvements and have become the source of strategic advantage since it creates the aptitude of better value chain quality control and faster market response (Jones 2010). Porters Five Forces of Competition Framework When it comes down to it, there are many tools that can determine the level of profitability and the amount of competition in an industry. A helpful, commonly used framework for analyzing and categorizing these factors is the one developed by Michael Porter of Harvard Business School (Grant 2005, p.73). Porters Five Forces of Competition framework analyzes the profitability and the fertility of an industry, as indicated by its rate of return on capital relative to its cost of capital, as determined by five forces of competition (Grant 2005, p.73). These five sources of competitive pressure fall under either horizontal or vertical competition. Three sources make up horizontal competition namely: competition from new entrants, competition from substitute products or services, and competition from established rivals. And two sources make up vertical competition namely: the bargaining power of buyers and the bargaining power of suppliers (Grant 2005, p.73) Competition from Established Rivals The European automotive market is highly collective. The main rivalry involves Ford, General Motors, Volkswagen, Renault, Peugeot, BMW, Citroen, Honda and Toyota. There is a threat of intense price wars and a strong requirement for product differentiation because of this presence of powerful competitors with established brands (Jones 2010). This competitive pressure leads to an increase in promotional costs; and overcapacity introduces a significant price pressure. The current market conditions are so intense, that some manufacturers had no choice but to close certain plants to slash the costs and stay alive on the market. There are three major competitive strategies that firms use to survive; the first one is to serve and satisfy the needs of emerging market segments, new product development strategy, and lastly the supply chain improvement strategy (Jones 2010). Any opportunity that might arise requires an immediate operational responsiveness as there always is little space till market opportunity is leveraged by competitors. Bargaining Power of Buyers Because of the increasing overcapacity issue and high intensity of competition on the worldwide scale, European buyers experience very strong bargaining power (Jones 2010). It is said that buyers have a high level of bargain seeking behavior. Competition from Substitutes Apart from straight competitors such as public transport, cars compete with other forms of transport: air, sea, and rail. The ever-increasing importance of door to door transportation as well as environmental concerns has decreased the present threat of other forms of transport as substitutes. The main source of substitute threat comes from the sales of used cars. The steady accumulation of secondhand cars is one of the major reasons for the dramatic fall of the sales of new cars (Jones 2010). Bargaining Power of Suppliers Although carmakers have formed large entities it did not make a noteworthy shift of bargaining power in relations between original equipment manufacturers and the suppliers. The consolidation in the original equipment manufacturers sector has generated the equivalent consolidation between different groups of suppliers (Jones 2010). In the light of the overcapacity issue, demand chain partners and especially large car dealers do experience large bargaining power. Competition from entrants There is a high level of entry barriers when an industry is extremely consolidated and there is a well-developed value-added chain, RD and marketing capability. All of these minimize the threat of new entrants. However, due to global nature of the automotive industry the idea of new entrant is not that straightforward, since existing companies may enter new geographical markets. For example there is a huge potential for Chinese manufacturers to flood European markets in case safety measures and protectionist laws are not introduced by European countries (Jones 2010). Attractiveness of the industry for Foreign Direct Investments The value of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) per annum or per capita is one of the most common indices used to compare the attractiveness of countries (Maksymiuk 2006, p.4). The attractiveness of any country for FDI consists of many factors (which are valid also for sectors): low transaction costs, low risks for investment, a developed capital market, assured property rights, high expenditure in research and development, a highly developed infrastructure, a liberal economy, a lack of barriers for the entrance or exit from the market, a high quality of institutions supporting entrepreneurship and innovations, low taxes for employees, highly qualified specialists, a big domestic market, positive perspectives for the development of the country and political and social stability (Maksymiuk 2006, p.4). The attractiveness of the automotive industry can be increased by additional factors: the number of automotive suppliers qualified by quality management systems, the close proximity of car manufacturers, and the access to raw materials, a good climate guaranteed by government, operational clusters and co-operation between the industry and universities as well as RD institutions and consulting companies (Maksymiuk 2006, p.4). Information technologies are essential in all phases of development of the product, through manufacturing, logistics, purchasing and up to sales and after-sale services (Maksymiuk 2006, p.18). IT reduces the period of implementation of solutions and the costs of implementation. It supports the transfer of data around the world and makes it easier for transnational corporations to develop their products in a country that offers the most favorable conditions for FDI. IT is also one of the first tools which helps during mergers and acquisitions. The automotive industry could face some issues in the future. There could be a fall in the popularity of cars because of increases in car prices, increases in maintenance costs, and the appearance of substitutes for the car (Maksymiuk 2006, p.19). Another threat for the automotive industry could be triggered by an increase in transaction costs. It would be rather difficult to find such a situation in all automotive regions in the world, however decline in one of the regions (e.g. nationalization or a change of law against FDI in a big country) would bring higher losses and an extension of profits from investments in the longer term Many companies could be stopped because of a lack of components. Europe (especially the countries that have recently joined the European Union), with its strengths and opportunities reduces the risk of losses and is an attractive place for future investors (Maksymiuk 2006, p.19). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Out of all the main manufacturing car industries in the world (Japan and US), the European is the largest and the most competitive. European automotive industry is a complex one and at the same time very diverse. It is basically dominated by German manufacturers. Although there has been a rise in sales and manufacturing from France, Spain and UK, German car makers still dominate the market. The market is also further divided by manufacturers that produce mass volumes of cars, than the manufacturers that focus on specializations and finally those that target niche markets and only cater to those specific customers. I say that the car industry is a complex one, because the state of industry affects many markets that are related to it, such as car parts, accessories, fuels and many more. Another reason why the industry is complex is that there are changing regulations of the car production, such as issues of global warming, safety and reliability. Also, companies must continuously consi der political, environmental and technological concerns in order to succeed. However despite the complexity of the environment of the automotive industry, European car industry has many favorable business and environmental factors such as the future growth potential within Europe, also there is an economic stability, positive growth of certain car market segments and finally theres relatively medium entry barriers which makes it an excellent place for FDI investors.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

What is the effect on the audience of John Proctors decision in act 4? :: English Literature

What is the effect on the audience of John Proctors decision in act 4? How does miller build up tension and drama in this section? How is it still relevant to a modern audience? This essay is on the main importance of John Proctors decision and how Miller builds up a sense of tension (and also drama) throughout Act 4. I will also mention how relevant the play is in modern day times by discussing McCarthyism. Firstly, John Proctors decision in this section is quite simple, sign the agreement or not. But it is the way that this section influences the audience that is significant, because it gets the audience more involved. John has several problems with signing the agreement, for example in signing the agreement he signs his name away, in other words he will lose his reputation. We can learn that Proctor values his name, and sees it as the only thing he has left, apart from Elizabeth; â€Å"I have given you my soul, leave me my name!† This shows us, the audience which Proctor although is shown as a stern man through out the play, in this part he is shown as being emotional and considers his name as a symbol of self respect. Following on from the previous point, humiliation is used well to make us feel sorry for Proctor due to the fact that he is faced with his name and confession being pinned to the church door, the example of this is, when Proctor exclaims; â€Å"God does not need my name nailed to the church door† This helps us strengthen our beliefs that Proctor values his name. Proctor also has other reasons to struggle with his decision, mainly because the others involved are what we know as saints; Rebecca and Martha are very holy people, who believe that they should never lie, even though the consequences may be as extravagant as death, the two saints are holding out against the interrogation of Danforth, therefore John takes it into account that although he is not as holy as they are, to keep the faith, he must hold out, but, the audience gets a shock when John considers the agreement, this gives us an element of surprise and a will he wont he effect, making us watch even more avildly. Other influential things that help John make the decision, is the fact he has a family, he has two boys who he does ask questions about, not only does he ask about his two boys, but also he asks about his unborn child and his wife Elizabeth, who he cares for dearly; an example of

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Interview Essays - A Local Rock Star -- Interview Essays - A Local Roc

Local Rock Star Sitting at the table with long, thick, blonde hair and a hint of Brad Pitt’s facial features sits Brian. He is a 17 year old high school junior, a guitarist in a local band, and he is my interview. He will begin nearly all his sentences with â€Å"uhh†¦Ã¢â‚¬  but then proceeds to long, interesting answers. I started by asking him about when he became interested in music, and who his influences were. â€Å"I’ve always listened to music,† he said, â€Å"my first album ever was Nirvana’s Nevermind; it was a cassette tape. I also listened to a lot of Michael Jackson—don’t laugh, I mean like Thriller and stuff.† What inspired you to play an instrument? â€Å"The Red Hot Chili Peppers’ CD Blood, Sugar, Sex, Magic was the first time I realized I wanted to play an instrument.† What instruments do you play? â€Å"I’ve played guitar for the last four years, saxophone for the last two—though only in the school band,† he said. â€Å"The keyboard, bass and drums I can ‘musically understand,’ though I don’t usually play them.† So tell me about the band. What’s the significance of the band’s name, No Name Charlies? â€Å"Uhh†¦ well we had, like, 100 names that we had gone through and we didn’t really like. Then Greg, our former trombone player, said that whenever his teacher in elementary school would get an essay without a name on it, she’d call it a ‘no name Charlie.’ We all kind of liked it; it’s definitely grown on us since then.† He told me the band came together in November 2001, and their first show was in spring 2002. There has been a lot of movement in terms of the band members: some have come and gone, some have come, gone and come back again, some switch instruments, and others have stepped in. The configuration, as i... ...ur first one,† he says, referring to their 2003 demo Shut Up and Listen! They met Pat Kays, bassist for the band Catch 22, when they opened for his band last year. Kays told the boys he liked their sound, and was interested in engineering and, to an extent, producing. â€Å"It was mutual,† Brian said, â€Å"because we had been wanting to record, and he had wanted to engineer. It all kind of fell into place.† Youthful endurance, continuing optimism and a small—but steadily growing—fan base have all contributed to the No Name Charlies’ local success. When asked whether the band would take the chance to become famous—if the chance was given—Brian said they would take it without question. However, he thinks balance is important, and would not sacrifice a college education for it. When asked if he thinks the band will make it big, Brian replied, â€Å"I’d like to think so.†

Friday, October 11, 2019

Computer Security Incident Response Team Essay

In the last decade, more and more companies have started to look into e-commerce to connect them to the infinite world of global suppliers, partners, consumers and much more. This boom in technology has placed multiple assets are risk from a security stand point allowing hackers/crakers and anyone on the internet to gain access to these network and gain information or try to jeopardize business to a point where it stand stills. Increase in Denial of service attacks, child pornography, virus/worms and other tools used by individuals to destroy data has lead to law enforcement and media to look into why and how these security breaches are conducted and what new statutory laws are needed to stop this from happening. According to CSI computer crime and security Survey 2007, the average annual loss reported by security breach has shot up to $350,424 from 168,000 the previous year. To add to this, more and more organizations are reporting computer intrusions to law enforcement which inclined to 29 percent compared to 25 percent the year before. 1] To be successful in respond to an incident, there are a few things that need to be followed: 1. Minimize the number of severity of security incidents. 2. Assemble the core computer security Incident Response Team (CSIRT). 3. Define an incident response plan. 4. Contain the damage and minimize risk. [3] How to minimize the number of severity and security incidents: It is impossible to prevent all security related incidents, but there are things that can be done to minimize the impact of such incidents: †¢Establishing and enforcing security policies and procedures. Gaining support from Management in both enforcing security policies and handling incidents. Accessing vulnerabilities on the environment on regular basis including regular audits. †¢Checking all devices on certain time frames to make sure that all the updates were performed. †¢Establishing security policies for both end users and security personal and asking for security clearance each and every time an access is granted. †¢Posting banners and reminders for responsibilities and restriction of use of applications, and other systems on the network. †¢Implementing secure password polices thought the network. Checking log files on regular basics and monitoring traffic. †¢Verifying backups are done on regular basics and maintained in an appropriate manner. This would also include the new email backup policy laws. †¢Create Computer Security Response Team (CSIRT) [3] Security threat is the same for both large, small, and government organizations and therefore it is important that regardless of what the company has for its security measures, it also ha s a written document that establishes guidelines for incident response. Incident respond planning is a set of guidelines that document on security incident handling and communication efforts. This plan is activated when an incident that could impact the company’s ability to function is established. Computer Security Incident Response Plan (CSIRP) should contain the following: 1. Mission: Things the response team will be responsible for, including how to handle incidents as they happen and what steps are necessary to minimize the impact of such incidents. 2. Scope: this would define, who is responsible for which area of security, it can include things like application, network(s), employees, communication both internally and to the public and much more. . Information flow: How information will be handled in case of an emergency and how it will be reported to the appropriate authority, pubic, media and internal employees. 4. Services provided: This document should contain all the services that are either provided to the users or services that are used or bought from other vendors including testing, education, service provider issues to name a few. [2] The CSIRT team must contain several members including a Team leader which will monitor changes in individual’s actives and responsibility of reviewing actions. An Incident Lead, that will be dedicated as the owner of set of incidents and will be responsible for speaking to anyone outside the team while and corresponding changes and updates. A group of individual’s part of the CISRT team called members will be responsible to handle responsibility of the incident and will monitor different areas of the company. Other members of this team should include Legal help, public relations officers, contractors and other member of management both from business and IT that can help during security breaches. If an Incident has occurred, it is important to classify this as an incident severity. Most companies use between Severity 1-5. 1 being the highest and 5 being the research phase where no system or user’s are affected. For most system anything under Severity 3 is not a major impact of the system but if there is a system wide issue that requires immediate attention, a severity 1 or 2 would fall under the category of Incident response procedure and set up a high alert. The cost of an incident can be very high, depending on the loss of data, therefore identifying the risk and all the real threat fall under this category. Once the incident has been identified it should go into the assessment phase, where it should be determined if the system can be bought back up again and how much damage is done. If the business is impacted assessment should be done. The assessment includes forensic investigation usually involving a team of expert that look into the how many computer were affected, what kind of information was stolen or changed, entry level of attacks, potential damage done by incident, recovery process and the best way to assess this from happening again. The next phase of this is containment, which is the assessment of damage and isolation of other systems that can also be compromised including network. Backup of the system in the current state should be done at this time for further forensic investigation. Analyzing of log files and uncovering systems that were used like firewalls, routers should be identified. Any modification of files including dos, exe should also be carried out in this phase. Once all this is done, the next step is Recovery. Recovery is restoring clean data back the system so it can perform is function as required. After installing last good backup, it is important to test the system before putting this in production again. Further surveillance of network and application should be set in place as intruders might try this again. Every company today, weather small or big needs an incident response unity to defend itself against predators on the web. The government agencies has set some rules and regulations on such standards and are required that company follow these standards to avoid further disruption of the service. This becomes even more critical for companies that play important place in the economy like credit card, health, insurance and much more. Several regional companies today can help plan CSIRP plan that provide help creating a team of individuals that can act fast in such situations. The implementation of such plan cost less in the long run, when compared to companies that don’t have such response plan and loose data that is critical to their survival.